The Compendium Vol:2 (2022)

A Dissertation Presented to
The Faculty of the Ambassador College
Graduate School of Education
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy

by
Herman L. Hoeh
1963, 1966, 1969 Edition

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter I
Early History of Germany
Antiquity of the German Reich
Germans Shape World Affairs
The Answer Found
Did the Assyrians Invade Europe?
What Did Assyrians Look Like?
Why Germans Call Themselves "Deutschen"
What Language Did They Speak?
Semitic by Race, Not Language

Chapter II
The Ancient Kings of the Germans
The Early Settlers of Europe
Kings of Ancient Germany

Chapter III
Abraham in Early European History
Europe's Early History Suppressed
Abraham in the Austrian Chronicle

Chapter IV
Jews Gain Power in Danube Civilization
Jewish Kings from Austrian Chronicle
End of Jewish Predominance

Chapter V
The Conquests of Odin and Danish History
What the History of Denmark Reveals
The Genealogy of Dan I
"Hu the Mighty"
The Kings of Denmark
Denmark Enters Roman History
Christianity Introduced on the Throne

Chapter VI
Scotland -- Key to History of New World
What Historians Claim
First Major Settlement
Line of Judah in Scotland
Earliest History of Scotland
Early Line of Scottish Kings
Kings of Cruithne Continued

Chapter VII
They Crossed the Atlantic
The Little Ice Age
Whites Did Not Become Indians
American Indian Tradition
Enter Votan
Early Time of Migration
Chronology of Mexico
The History of Toltecs at Tullan
The City-State of Culhaucan
The Chichimecs at Texcoco
The Aztecs

Chapter VIII
The History of Spain
Only Recently Suppressed
Earliest Kings over the Spanish
Invasion from Africa
Abraham's Children
Chaos in Spain
Time of the Sea Powers

Chapter IX
Italy, Home of Pagan Religion
Italy in the Ancient World
What Italian History Reveals
The History of Etruria
The History of the Latins

Chapter X
The Story of the Peruvian Indians
Modern Scholarship Discarded the Facts
What Archaeologists Found
Illustration from Burma
The Inca Rulers

Chapter XI
Ancient Persia and Turkestan
Early Kings of Persia
The Second Race
The First Race
Turkestan, Turks and Mongols
Ogus Khan
The History of Armenia

Chapter XII
Trojan Migration to France
Trojan Kings of Isauria
Trojan Kings of Sicambria and Pannonia
Kings of Agrippina
Princes of Brabant
Dukes of Brabant
Kings of Frisia
Dukes of Frisia
Second Group of Kings of Frisia
Trojan Kings of the Belgians
Kings of the Celts in Gaul

Chapter XII A
Further Migrations to France
Sicambrian Kings
The Kings of the Franks
Dukes of the East Franks
The Hapsburgs Enter
The Dukes of Gaul
Kings of France
In Retrospect

Chapter XIII
History of Sweden and the Saxons
The Record Speaks
Renewed Migration
Dynasty of Yngling
Dynasty of Stenkil
Saxon History

Chapter XIV
The History of Arabia
Who Were the First Arabs?
The Jorhamites of Hejaz
The Kingdom of Yemen
Arabia's Indian-Ocean Neighbors

Chapter XV
The Miracle of the Red Sea
Do Miracles Happen Today?
Background of the Story
Where Is Goshen?
The Land of Rameses
Goshen During the Plagues
The Night of the Exodus
Israel Built Pyramids
What Road Did Israel Take?
Where Are These Places?
Crossing the Red Sea
Egypt Left Desolate
Egypt's Historians Admit What Happened

Chapter XVI
Journey to Petra
After Mount Sinai -- Where?
What Does "Kadesh" Mean?
Located in Mount Seir!
Israel Whipped in Seir
Yet Another Proof!
Where Was the "Wilderness of Wandering"?
Encampments Listed in Order
Bene-Jaakan is Kadesh!
The Return to Kadesh
"Sela" Another Name for Petra
Where Did Aaron Die?
Where Was the King's Highway?
Journey Northward in the Arabah
Petra Occupied by Israel

Chapter XVII
Where Did the Twelve Apostles Go?
Jesus' Commission Tells
"House of Israel" Identified
What New Testament Reveals
Three Missing Words
Wars Reveal Where
To Whom Did Peter Write?
Remnant of Ten Tribes on Shores of Black Sea
What Greek Historians Report
Simon Peter in Britain!
And Andrew His Brother
And the Other Apostles?
And Ireland Too!
Paul in Britain, Too?
On the Shores of the Caspian Sea
Where Did Matthew Go?

Chapter XVIII
Since the First Man
Scientific Confusion
Why Hypotheses?
Uncovering the Facts
How Geologists Think
Discarding the Facts
Facts of Geology
Confirmation of Genesis One
The World of Adam
The Sin of Cain and Geology
Early Post-Flood World

Appendix A
The Enigma of Dynasty I and II of Kish Resolved

Appendix B
Ethiopian King List
Agdazyan Dynasty
Dynasty of Menelik I
The Christian Sovereigns
Dynasty of Atse
Sovereigns Issued from Zagwe
A Jewish Dynasty
House of Gondar
Tribe of Ori
Line of Ham

Appendix C
Kashmir -- Chronology from the Rajatarangini
Gonandiya Dynasty
Usurping Dynasty
Restored Gonandiya Dynasty
Karkota Dynasty
The Dynasty of Utpala
First Lohara Dynasty
Second Lohara Dynasty

INTRODUCTION

The first volume of the COMPENDIUM OF WORLD HISTORY exposed the radical new interpretation of history now taught on all levels of modern education. It revealed the fallacy of the "historical method." It explained WHY God is left out of history.

Volume I restored the history of ancient Egypt, of Assyria and Babylonia, of Media and India, of Greece, Ireland and Britain. This volume completes that restoration. For the first time, in this second volume, the early history of Europe will be made plain. Its connection with the New World, with American Indian civilization, with the early Biblical heroes is an astounding revelation.

CHAPTER I -- EARLY HISTORY OF GERMANY

The time has come to reveal the true history of Europe. The Germans for centuries have dominated the heartland of Western Europe. Because of the geographic position Germany's transportation lines constitute the vital arteries of the continent. Without the beating of the German heart, Europe would lose its economic and political prominence in world affairs.

Ancient Roman writers would have us believe that the Germans in the Roman heyday were mere barbarians, an insignificant people roaming the forests of northern Europe. Was this Roman report the whole truth?

Were the ancient Roman writers keeping back from their people the facts of German history?

Rome conquered Spain, Gaul, Southern Britain, all North Africa to the Sahara, Illyria, Greece, Asia to the Euphrates. But Rome had to draw its boundary in the north along the Rhine. Why? Why was Rome not able to subdue all Germany? Why, after centuries of bloodshed, did Rome finally succumb to the hammer blows of the Germanic Goths and Vandals?

It is high time we were told the true history of early Germany.

The origin of the German people in Europe is rooted in patriarchal times. The history of early Germany, suppressed by the Romans, was revived briefly in the German-dominated Middle Ages. But before the close of the seventeenth century not even the Germans remembered their past. It had been stamped out in the name of education and religion.

But not all was lost. From early documents and local traditions it is still possible to recover what has, in recent centuries, been buried under the rubble of modern educational superstition. The Germans themselves are in great part responsible for this condition. They fostered modern historical concepts. They have tried to hide their past even from themselves -- just as they did at the close of the Hitler era. If the Germans admitted to themselves and the world who they really are, all the world would recognize in Imperial Germany the reconstituted Assyrian Empire -- once the terror of all the civilized world!

ANTIQUITY OF THE GERMAN REICH

Germany has set herself up as the bulwark of European civilization. Germany for centuries has claimed to stand as the wall of defense against the barbarism of Asia. The German Reich long endured as the oldest political institution in Continental Europe. The German people called their Reich the Holy Roman Empire. It bore rule over Europe for a thousand years. This "Holy Roman Empire of the German People" was officially designated by the Church in the Middle Ages as "The Kingdom of God" on earth. Its citizens, the Germans, felt themselves true Romans and bearers of the Christian Reich or kingdom. They were therefore the chosen people of the Christian era, entrusted with a world-mission to be the protectors of Christianity.

German leaders and philosophers have never forgotten this notion of the Middle Ages that the German, in place of the Jew, has a special mission from God.

This strange concept, which lies behind modern political thinking in Germany, is plainly stated in the German work "Die Trag"die des Heiligen Reiches" -- in English, "The Tragedy of the Holy Roman Empire." It is by Friedrich Heer. It is a remarkable volume. It lays bare the reason for the secret motives of the German to dominate Europe -- and the world.

GERMANS SHAPE WORLD AFFAIRS

The story of the ancestry of the German people, and their role in prophecy, is one of the strangest stories ever written. It is gripping with interest, amazing -- yes, astounding! "The History of Germany," writes Bayard Taylor, "is not the history of a nation, but of a race ... Thus, even before the fall of the Roman Empire, it becomes the main trunk out of which branch histories of nearly all European nations, and ... the connecting link between ancient and modern history. The records of no other race throw so much light upon the development of all civilized lands during a period of fifteen hundred years" ("History of Germany", page iii).

Germany has contributed more military leaders than any other nation in history. Its governments have, in the past, claimed the right to rule the "Christian world." The German State, from its beginning, has nearly always been a confederation of states -- often an empire of German ruling over non-German. It is the German people who, more than once, have believed themselves to be the "Herrenvolk" -- the Master Race.

The German people number over one hundred million throughout the world today. They are composed of numerous small tribes. Nations, remember, are families grown big. Take Israel as an example. The nation Israel descended from one man, Jacob (who was renamed Israel upon his conversion -- Genesis 35:9-10). But Israel had 12 sons. His family therefore was divided into 12 tribes. One reads in the Bible about "the 12 tribes of Israel" -- Judah, Dan, Ephraim, Levi, etc. (Genesis 49:28).

The same is true of the German people. of all these tribes, perhaps the most famous name to Americans is that of the Hessians. The British hired numerous Hessians in their effort to put down the American Revolution which began in 1776. The Hessians were known to Roman historians by the tribal name "Hatti." Other Germans bore the names "Alemani" "Suabi," and "Quadi," the "Casuri." The Romans called them collectively Germani, meaning "War-men" (from the "Encyclopedia Britannica", article, "Germany").

But from where did all these Germanic people come?

Here is the answer of history: "There can be no doubt that they Black and Caspian seas," states "Smith's Classical Dictionary", article, "Germania," p. 361. Ancient historical records confirm this admission.

The Germans can be traced in historical records to the regions surrounding the Black and Caspian seas, which border on the ancient Biblical Mesopotamia. This is the region where civilization commenced and from where the patriarchs came!

THE ANSWER FOUND

Ancient German tradition claims that their oldest city, Trier, was founded by Trever or Trebeta, a son of Ninus, king of Assyria. "The inhabitants of Trier maintain that their city is the oldest in all Europe," writes Josef K. L. Bihl in his textbook "In deutschen Landen", page 69. "Trier was founded," he continues, "by Trebeta, a son of the famous Assyrian King Ninus. In fact, one finds ... in Trier the inscription reading, 'Trier existed for 1300 years before Rome was rebuilt.' " Ninus, according to Roman, Greek and Persian records, was the first ruler who began the systematic conquest of the ancient world after the death of Nimrod. He established the Assyrian Empire as the chief power over Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia, reported Diodorus of Sicily in his History.

But how is it possible that the oldest German city, Trier, founded over 2000 years before the birth of Christ, should be built by a son of Ninus, the renowned King of ancient Assyria? What connection have the Germans with Assyria?

Jerome, who lived at the time when the Indo-Germanic tribes were invading Europe, provides this startling answer: "For 'Assur (the Assyrian) also is joined with them' " (Letter 123, sec. 16, "Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers"; quote is from Psalm 83:8).

DID THE ASSYRIANS INVADE EUROPE?

Yes! Jerome said so! But how did he know? He saw them! He was an eyewitness to their migrations from Mesopotamia and the shores of the Black and Caspian seas! Now consider what Sylax, the author of the "Periplus," who lived about 550 B.C., writes of the southern shores of the Black Sea: "The coast of the Black Sea ... is called Assyria" (from page 261 of Perrot and Chipiez's "History of Art in Sardinia, Judaea, Syria and Asia Minor", Vol. II.) From there the Assyrians moved north.

Only 300 years before Jerome, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder declared the "Assyriani" -- the Assyrians -- were dwelling north of the Black Sea ("Natural History", IV, 12, page 183). But the Assyrians did not remain there. They are not there today. of course not -- they migrated into Central Europe -- where the Germans live today!

WHAT DID ASSYRIANS LOOK LIKE?

What did the ancient Assyrians look like? Here is the answer: "In the Zagros hills and across the plain to the Tigris, there lived a ... fair-haired ... people akin to the Guti (the Goths) who ... remained in what was afterwards Assyria, the neighbour land to Akkad" (page 5 of "The Sumerians", by C. Leonard Woolley). When the ancient Greek writers wanted to distinguish the Assyrians and their Hebrew captives from the Arameans or Syrians, the Greeks often called both Assyrians and their Hebrew captives "Leucosyri" -- meaning "whites" or "blonds" as distinct from the very brunette Syrians who still live in Mesopotamia.

WHY GERMANS CALL THEMSELVES "DEUTSCH"

The Germans do not call themselves "German." They refer to themselves as Deutschen, and to their country as Deutschland. When the Assyrians or Germans appeared in Europe, they claimed Tuitsch as their ancestor! That is where the name "Deutsch" comes from! "Tuysco, the most ancient and peculiar god of all the Germans ... of this Tuisco, the first and chiefest man of many among the Germans, and after whom they do call themselves Tuytshen, that is, duytshes or duytsh people, I have already spoken." So writes Verstegan in his 1605 publication entitled "Restitution of Decayed Intelligence: in Antiquities".

Whenever a German calls himself Deutsch, he is therefore saying he is a descendant of Tuitsch (Tuisco or Tuisto in Latin). And when he terms his country Deutschland, he is saying his land is Tuitsch's land.

Who this Tuitsch is will be made plain in Chapter II.

WHAT LANGUAGE DID THEY SPEAK

European scholars have thoroughly studied the language of the land of Hatti -- the ancestors of the Hessians. It is an Indo-Germanic tongue -- numerous words of which were akin to Old High German. So many similarities were found that Edgar Sturtevant had to declare: "To me it seems incredible that so remarkable a situation developed in two languages independently. I feel compelled to trace the Germanic ... to a common origin" with the language of Hatti -- common tongue of the Assyrians in Asia Minor (from "A Comparative Grammar", page 240).

Scholars admit that for centuries the language of the people who inhabited Assyria was not merely Semitic. Semitic was the late literary language of Assyria -- the language of scholars, the language of international commerce. Modern historians and archaeologists assume that the common tongue of all Assyrian people was Semitic. They have no proof. So noted an Assyriologist as Sydney Smith admitted "... that the documents from Asia Minor and from east of Tigris are couched in Semitic dialects spoken by men unable to pronounce all the Semitic consonants ..." (p. xi, from "Early History of Assyria to 1000 B.C.").

The same circumstance occurred during the Middle Ages all over Europe. The language of almost all European scholars -- and even their names -- until the time of the Protestant Reformation was Latin -- but Latin was not the common tongue of the people! Because most of the literature of Germany was in Latin during the Middle Ages does not prove that the common people spoke Latin.

SEMITIC BY RACE, NOT LANGUAGE

Asshur was a son of Shem. But after the tower of Babel, when the languages of the world were confused (Genesis 11), most Assyrians no longer spoke a Semitic tongue, but rather Indo-Germanic and related tongues! The Germans, therefore, are Semitic by race, but not by language! In the days of Abraham, the Germans or Assyrians formed a great confederation of states or tribes, speaking several different languages (Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews", book I, ch. 9). One king of the Assyrians -- already discussed -- was "Tidal, king of nations" (Genesis 14:1). The name Tidal is Indo-Germanic, not Semitic.

Most scholars have never been conscious of the fact that the use of the Semitic language in Assyria was due to the rising influence of the Aramaic people (Genesis 10:22) in Mesopotamia and certain of the sons of Abraham ("Antiquities", book I, ch. XV, sect. 1). So prominent did they become that Mesopotamia is called "Padan-Aram" -- the plain of Aram -- in the Bible (Genesis 28:22).

CHAPTER II -- THE ANCIENT KINGS OF THE GERMANS

The settlement of the Assyrians and related peoples in early Europe is summarized by several writers in the early Middle Ages. The list of the early kings presented here is from the "Bayerische Chronik" and "Deutsche Chronik" by Johannes Turmair, Abensberg, 1526. The traditional events assigned to each ancient German ruler are confirmed by both archaeological evidence and the fragmentary comments of classical historians.

The "Bayerische Chronik" is very important for the history of Central Europe. It proves that German history was correctly preserved in song and poetry and in contemporary written records down to Roman times. It further proves that the length of time from the Flood to Roman times was accurately preserved except for an overlooked 24 years.

This period was the 24 years from Abram's year 75 to his year 99. The later chroniclers, who placed in parallel German and Hebrew history, universally reckoned the 430 years from the Covenant that was confirmed with Abraham to Sinai as beginning when Abram was 75 years old, instead of

99. They therefore placed the Flood 24 years too late in history. The German chronicles that were the basis of Turmair's work placed the Flood 131 years before the coming of the German patriarch Tuisto into Europe. They should have reckoned 131 plus 24 -- that is, 155 years. With this one exception, all dates from Tuisto down to the burning of Rome in 390 B.C. need no correction. All that is necessary is to add the separate lengths of reign. There are no missing lengths of reign.

German history commences with an extensive settlement of farmers in Europe from the Don River to the Rhine. The date of this migration into Europe from Mesopotamia and the Near East is placed at 2214 B.C.

by German history -- just 155 years after the Flood and 40 years after the Tower of Babel.

BEGINNING OF GERMAN OR ASSYRIAN HISTORY

The real beginnings of Assyrian history were not presented in Volume I. They are restored here. One account begins with the reign of Nimrod in 2194 -- after the 60-year reign of Cush. Cush was the first Belus -- the word means "lord" -- who bore rule after the Flood. Early Rulers of Assyria and Babylon Lengths of Reign Dates Saturn: the Nimrod of Scripture, 56 2194-2138 known also as Ninus I.

Belus: great lord of Assyria 55 2138-2083 -- a title of Shem as lord over all his family. The title was later taken by Asshur.

Ninus II: conquered the 52 2100-2048 Middle East in 17 years (2100-2083), while his father was recognized as supreme ruler, (see Diodorus Siculus).

Ninus is the name of Asshur used by classical writers.

Semiramis or Ishtar 42 2048-2006 Ninyas: called Zames 38 2006-1968 (see Vol. 1 for history).

THE EARLY SETTLERS OF EUROPE

The "Bavarian Chronicle" records in detail the earliest settlers of Europe after the Deluge. Their encampments and habitations have been recovered by archaeological research and are labeled the "Neolithic" migrations that traversed the Danube and adjoining valleys. Shem or Tuitsch came into Europe with members of his family, as well as with certain of the sons of Japheth and two of the sons of Ham who were of the white stock. From these have descended most of the present-day nations of Europe. The descendants of Shem include many sons of Joktan, son of Heber, and a number of the sons of Mash, son of Aram. The Biblical names (Genesis 10) of the grandsons and great-grandsons of Shem are clearly preserved in most instances by the "Chronicle". In the following chart, together with the names of the patriarchal settlers, appear either the areas settled, the tribes which sprang from them, or their Biblical names. An historical or classical map should be consulted for location of geographic names. In later times the descendants of these early heroes migrated west, south, north and east under population pressure.

Dukes settled by Shem in Europe Identity, or Area settled

1. Sarmata, son of settled Sarmatia; is the Joktan Hazarmaveth of Gen. 10:26; colonized south Arabia; a son Tanaus gave his name to the river Tanais, now called the Don.

2. Dacus, son of Mash, settled Dacia, later also grandson of Aram colonized in Denmark

3. Geta, another son from whom came certain of of Mash (included in the Getae of Roman history Anderson's "Royal Genealogies", but not in "Bavarian Chronicle")

4. Gotha Gether from whom came the Goths (v .23)

5. Tibiscus, late settled on the river Latin spelling of Theiss or Tibiscus; Tiobo, an Italian descendants migrated into spelling of Jobab Germany (see "Encyclopedia (Gen. 10:29) Britannica", article "Archaeology")

6. Moesa, Mash settled Mysia and Moesia (Gen. 10:23)

7. Phrygus, or Brigus, settled in Phrygia and son of Mash (Gen. Europe 10:23)

8. Thynus, son of Mash settled Bithynia in Asia Minor

9. Dalmata, Almodad settled Dalmatia on Adriatic (v. 26)

10. Jader, Jerah (v .26), founded the port called his descendants also Jaderia Colonia in Illyria settled in Arabia

11. Albanus or Albion, for whom Albania is named, Abimael (v. 28) and also Albion or Britain; his descendants early migrated to the Isle of Britain

12. Sabus or Sau, Sheba settled on the river Save; (v. 28) migrated to Italy as Sabines

13. Pannus or Benno, settled Pannonia son of Mash

14. Sala or Salon built the town Sala; gave Shelah (v. 24) his name to river Sal

15. Azalus or Aezel, ancestor of the Azali; Uzal (v. 27) also settled in Aezeland in Pannonia

16. Hister, the Joktan settled Istria; Hister of the Bible (Gen. means same in Indo-European 10:25) tongues that Joktan does in Hebrew -- water course (Rawlinson, "Ancient History")

17. Adulas or Adler, anciently dwelt on Upper Hadoram (v. 27); Rhine; his son Than gave colonized in Arabia his name to the river Thonau, now called the Danube

18. Dicla, Diklah thought to have dwelt on (v. 27) Upper Rhine; his descendants later migrated to Gedrosia in Persia l9. Obalus or Elb, from him the river Elbe Obal (v. 28) takes its name

20. Epirus Ophir colonized Asia from Epirus (v. 29)

21. Eber built Ebersau -- the Eburodunum of Ptolemy's map

22. Hoeril, Havilah gave his name to river (Gen. 10:29) Havel or Havila (Jacobus Schatz: "Atlas Homannianus Illustratus", p. 121); from him descended the Heruli The white descendants of the following patriarchs also colonized parts of Europe:

23. Arcadius, father of the settled Arcadia in Greece Arkites (Gen. 10:17)

24. Emathius, father of settled Emathia in Macedonia Hamathites (Gen. 10:18)

25. Tiras, son of colonized Thrace Japheth

26. Moska, Meshech -- colonized east of the son of Japheth Carpathians

27. Javan, son of Hebrew name for Greece is Japheth Javan

28. Thubal, son of Josephus records that Japheth certain of his children settled Spain

29. Gomer, son of dwelt for a time in Italy Japheth

30. Asch, Ashkenaz -- his descencants mixed with son of Gomer the Goths -- whence Jews who settled in Central Europe acquired name of Ashkenazim

31. Reif or Rus, settled in Scythia and Riphath -- son of White Russia Gomer

32. Tagus, Togarmah -- dwelt for a time in Southern son of Gomer Europe

KINGS OF ANCIENT GERMANY

Early Kings of German Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Tuitsch or Tuisto 176 2214-2038 (236) (2214-1978) Chief of thirty-two dukes. Noah gave him all the land between the Don River and the Rhine or what was called Grossgermania. This is the beginning of the "neolithic" settlement of Europe. Tuitsch is, according to all ancient German commentaries and chronicles, a son of Noah. But which son? Noah adopted Tuitsch's children as his own. The ancient Germans understood the name Tuitsch to be the title "Teacher." He was therefore the great patriarch of his family who taught the divine will to his children.

Tuitsch is the father of Mannus (who is the Assyrian Ninus). The son of Mannus, Trebeta, is the same man who is called the son of Ninus in classical writers. The son of Mannus or Ninus -- Trebeta -- built Trier, the first town of Germany. Since the Bible calls this Ninus (who built Nineveh), Asshur, Tuitsch is therefore Shem!

Tuitsch (Shem) left Europe for Egypt in 2038. His appearance in Egyptian chronological records of Dynasty I dates his arrival and government in 2037. From Armenia Tuitsch left 155 years after the Flood (131 plus 24) -- see the comments at the beginning of this chapter.

With him were twenty-two descendants plus eight from Japheth and two from Ham. Tuitsch made his headquarters at Deutz (today Koeln-Deutz).

The country is called Deutschland after him -- that is, the land of the great Patriarch or Teacher, Shem. In the 25th year of his reign (2190-2189) Tuitsch held a state assembly, divided lands among his descendants and ordained laws. He also brought more colonies from Mesopotamia.

2. Mannus or Mann 72 1978-1906

(66) (1978-1912) For the last 60 years of Tuitsch's or Shem's reign in Germany, he governed his family from Egypt and Italy. It was not until 1978 that Mannus assumed the government over Western Europe, succeeding his father Tuitsch. At the beginning of his reign he sends out colonies to France and Asia Minor. His son Herman establishes the kingdoms of Phrygia, Mysia and Bithynia in Mannus' 34th year (1945-1944). Another son Trieber or Trebeta, built Trier. Nerus, another son, settled in the Netherlands. This Mannus is the Assyrian Ninus and is Asshur, son of Shem. Asshur means "strength" in Hebrew and has the same sense as Mannus -- masculinity -- in German.

3. Eingeb or Ingaevon 36 1906-1870

(40) (1912-1872) This son of Mannus or Ninus -- Asshur -- was the German Mercury. His wife Freia was the German Venus. He instituted the observance of Weinnachten of December 24. Eingeb is responsible for settling Germans on the North Sea from Denmark to Dunkirk. He sent his general Brigus from the Danube valley to secure Spain against the African Amazons (female warriors). Myrein, queen of the African Amazons advanced up the Danube but was defeated and slain by Eingeb's generals Seiphyl and Mopser.

4. Ausstaeb or Istaevon 50 1870-1820

(52) (1872-1820) Son of Eingeb, Ausstaeb was the German Mars. From him are descended the Rheinlanders. In his days a great drought devastated Italy.

5. Herman 63 1820-1757

Son of Ausstaeb. He taught the philosophy that war and to die in battle is most pleasing to God. He introduced the arts of warmaking to the Germans. The Druids began to flourish in Germany. Herman settled the heart of Germany, whose people were called Hermanduri or Hermiones after him.

6. Mers 46 1757-1711

Son of Herman. The city of Merseburg is named after him. The Dithmarsii descended from him. Oryz, the Egyptian god-king Osiris, came with his wife Eisen up the Danube valley to Mers. They left Germany and went to Italy on their way back to Egypt. Cultural development of Germany through contact with Egypt in days of Joseph -- beer making, agriculture, forging and medicine were brought to Germany.

7. Gampar 44 1711-1667

Son of Mers. He was the inventor of beer brewing. His daughter Araxa became one of the wives of Libys (the Egyptian and Spanish Hercules), the son of Oryz, and gave birth to Tuscus, Schyth, Agatyrsus, Peucinger and Gutho.

8. Schwab 46 1667-1621

Son of Gampar. He gave his name to Schwaben. In his reign Eisen came to Germany and taught the people various crafts.

9. Wandler 41 1621-1580

Son of Schwab. Ancestor of the German Wenden or Vandals, who were first known at the Weser, next in the countries north of the Elbe; afterwards, a colony went into Spain, then into Africa where they restored the Roman Empire; their kingdom was demolished by General Belisarius. The cities of Luebeck, Rostoch, Dantzig, and others are the relics of those first Vandals who did not migrate to North Africa.

These German Vandals are different from the Wends called Slavi, Slavonians, Poles, Bohemians who settled in the ancient lands of the Vandals.

10. Deuto 27 1580-1553

Son of Wandler, gave his name to the Teutones. He led a campaign into France and built there the cities of Vannes, Sens, Santgenge and Toulouse. He was deified as the German Mercury, as Eingeb had previously been.

11. Alman (Allmann or Altman) 64 1553-1489

Son of Deuto, was the German Hercules. Famous for use of trained lions in war. Bore a lion in his shield. Bavarians, who descended from him, still use a lion on their coat of arms. He had many sons. Norein received Noricum (in Bavaria today). Norein was the father of part of the Bavarians. Haun was the father of the German Huns and lived with his brothers Glan and Schyter. Helvos was the father of the Helvetti in Switzerland. Baier ruled Bavaria. Mied and Math were the ancestors of the Mediomatrices in Alsace. Theur went to foreign lands.

12. Baier 60 1489-1429

Son of Alman. He sent a great army of Germans and Wends from Germany, Denmark and Gothland to the Balkans. One group, the Goths under Gebreich and Vilmer, settled on the river Theissa and lived there as the Getae till the time of Valentinian. Another group, including the German Amazons, proceeded down the Danube valley to the Black Sea and on through the Crimea and the Palus Maeotis to Armenia and Cappadocia and the Taurus mountains. Here they were known as the Cimmerians. Baier was also known as Bojus of Bavaria since he was the ancestor of many Bavari. He built Prague.

13. Ingram or Ingramus 52 1429-1377

Son of Baier. He sent many German colonists to Asia Minor. Tanhauser, king of the Germans in Asia Minor, and his priestess Schmirein, led a conquering army through Syria as far as Egypt. Built Hermenia, afterwards called Reginoberg (Ratisbon).

14. Adalger or Adelger 49 1377-1328

Son of Ingram. German Amazons were again famous in his time under Queens Lautpotis and Martpeis. They crossed through Asia Minor to Lycia, but were defeated.

15. Larein 51 1328-1277

Son of Adalger. This is the Laertes of Trojan fame, mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus. During his rule an army set out from Germany and went via Poland and Ruthenia to the Danube valley. Here it was joined by Germans who had come to the area some 150 years earlier, and the combined forces fell into Asia Minor under their leader Mader and their queen Aloph. They passed through Phrygia and settled in Armenia.

16. Ylsing or Ulsing 53 1277-1224

Son of Larein. This is the Trojan Ulysses of Tacitus. He is also the Greek Odysseus who sailed out to the Atlantic and up to the Rhine. Built Emmerick on the Main. During his reign the Germans under Galter again invaded Asia Minor and settled on the banks of the river Sangarius. Priam of Troy tried in vain to expel them, finally made a treaty, and they later helped him against the Greeks.

17. Brenner or Breno 38 1224-1186

Son of Ylsing, in whose reign Prichs ruled the Germans on the Black Sea and the women under queen Themyschyr conquered Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Cappadocia.

18. Heccar (Hykar or Highter) 31 1186-1155

Son of Brenner. He is the famous Hector of the First Trojan War. He was of great help to Priam. Teutschram, king of the Germans of Transylvania and son-in-law of Priam also sent help.

19. Frank (Francus or Franco) 41 1155-1114

Son of Heccar. From him descended the German Franks or Franconians. In his days Amar, queen of the German Amazons, burned the temple in Ephesus.

20. Wolfheim Siclinger 58 1114-1056

Son of Frank. He sent another great migration of settlers from Germany to the Black Sea.

21. Kels, Gal and Hillyr 50 1056-1006

Sons of Wolfheim. They divided their father's realm after his death. Hillyr received Illyria, Gal received Gaul and Kels received Germany. Hillyr had three daughters and six sons, all of whom settled in the regions of the Balkans, Thrace and Greece.

22. Alber 60 1006-946

Son of Gal, ruled together with his six cousins. The center of his government was in France.

23. Walther, Panno and Schard 62 946-884

Another son of Gal, ruled together with Panno and Schard, the grandsons of Hillyr. From Walther Italy is called Walhen or Walschland. Panno gave his name to Pannonia. From Schard came the Schardinger or Schordisci.

24. Main, Žngel and Treibl 70 884-814

Sons of Walther, ruled jointly with Treibl, son of Panno. From Žngel are descended the Angles who lived in Thringen and Meissen.

25. Myela, Laber and Penno 100 814-714 They ruled jointly.

26. Venno and Helto 70 714-644

Ruled jointly. Helto invaded and settled in Italy, expelling the former inhabitants.

27. Mader (Madyas) 55 644-589

Made extensive conquests. He built Milan. He led a German campaign as far as Syria and Palestine. Of his sons, Balweis received Lombardy, Sigweis Bavaria, and Brenner Thringen and Meissen.

28. Brenner II and Koenman 110 589-479

Brenner was the son of Mader. He was an "Engl"nder" and king of the Schwaben. His wife was Th"m"rin (Tomyris), queen of the Getae, Dacians and Scythians. Brenner sent her troops to help in the war against Cyrus. He also defeated Darius who tried to invade the lower Danube region. Together Brenner and Th"m"rin conquered much of Asia Minor as far as Armenia. His nephew K"nman, son of Sigweis, was king of the Bavarians. Brenner expelled K"nman and 300,000 Bavarians from Bohemia and resettled that region with Schwaben, who then became known as Markmannen. Some of the expelled Bavarians settled in Bavaria proper, but by far the largest number of them crossed the Alps into Italy, from where they drove out some of the Etruscans. After the death of K"nman, the Bavarians of Italy were ruled by the kings Zeck, Ber (who built Bern or Verona) and Breitmar.

29. Landein with his sons 80 479-399

Ant"r and R"g"r

30. Brenner III 38 399-361

Son of Breitmar, was king over both Schwaben and Bavarians, and reigned over Germany and Italy. Under his leadership the Schwaben and Bavarians sacked Rome. He had sons H"rkaz, Matsch"r, Guotfrid and Schirm. His daughter Gueta was married to Philip of Macedon. Burning of Rome (July 390) occurred in his 9th year.

31. Schirm 361-263

Son of Brenner III. He and his son Brenner IV ruled until 60 years after death of Alexander -- although Brenner IV dies earlier. Brenner led a massive German invasion into Greece, plundered Macedonia and the oracle at Delphi, but was killed in 279 B.C.

32. Thessel 85 279-194

Son of Brenner IV, ruled jointly with his uncle Lauther and his brother Euring. Lauther, with his brother Lebmner, broke into Asia Minor with 20,000 men and settled in Cappadocia and Phrygia. Thessel's sons Breitmar, Ernvest and Wirdm"r ruled over the Bavarians in Italy. His wife, Teutscha, was queen of Istria. The Romans defeated the Bavarians in Italy, killing Wirdm"r and 40,000 of his men.

33. Dieth I no length given 194-172

Son of Thessel, ruled jointly with his son Diethmer. Diethmer invaded Palestine on behalf of Antiochus IV, took many Jews captive and settled them in Germany near Regensburg. Soon afterwards Hannibal attacked Italy and many of the Bavarians from Northern Italy joined him against Rome. After Hannibal's defeat there followed a war between the Romans and Bavarians in northern Italy which lasted 12 years. Finally, weary of fighting, the Bavarians left Italy, where they had dwelt for almost 400 years, and settled in Pannonia. Dieth was also driven from Italy, whereupon Diethmer, in retaliation, persuaded Philip V of Macedon to renew his hostilities with Rome. Entz and Olor, German kings in Istria and Transylvania, aided Philip, but Rome won. In Asia Minor Rome launched an attack against the German kings Orthjag, Gompelmer, G"udhor, Orgsgund and Eposgnad. These retreated eastward over the Halys, where they were defeated, sued for peace, and swore never to raid foreign nations again. The Romans also defeated king Entz of Istria.

34. Baermund and Synpol 45 172-127

Ruled after the death of Dieth I and Diethmer.

35. Boiger, Kels and 27 127-100

Teutenbuecher They ruled jointly over the Germans and Bavarians in 127 B.C. They gathered an army of 300,000 Saxons and Bavarians, intending to invade and resettle Italy, from which they had been driven some 70 years earlier. They were, however, defeated by Marius at Aquae Sextiae (102 B.C.) and Vercellae (101 B.C.). Boiger died, having reigned 27 years.

36. Scheirer 30 100-70

Mithridates tried to enlist his aid in the struggles against Rome.

37. Ernst (Arionistus) and Vocho 20 70-50

Ernst was king over Germany and France, his brother-in-law, Vocho, over Bavaria, Austria and Hungary. Ernst invaded France, fought there for 14 years, and settled it with 120,000 Germans. Next 33,000 Bavarians decided to go via France and Spain into Italy. They were joined by the Helvetti. Julius Caesar defeated them, sent the Helvetii back home, but allowed the Bavarians to settle in Burgundy. Caesar also defeated king Ernst.

38. Pernpeist 10 50-40

He made a treaty with Persia against the Romans, made raids into Greece and even attacked Apulia and Naples by sea. The Bavarians, having been driven from Italy, lived near the Drave and Danube for 127 years. In the times of Ernst and Pernpeist they left their homes, sailed down the Danube and settled near the Vistula, Dniester and Dnieper, where they remained some 550 years. The name of the Bavarians is not encountered again for some 500 years, till the time of Attila.

39. Cotz, Dieth II and circa 40-13

Creitschir In 13 B.C. Augustus made an attack against the Germans on the Danube. Later he settled 40,000 Westphalians, Hessians and Schwaben on the west bank of the Rhine.

Virtual anarchy now began to reign among the German tribes. There were anti-Roman and pro-Roman factions and these split whole tribes and even families. The ruling families soon killed each other off in family feuds and inter-tribal warfare. The royal house that next dominated Germany came from the Sicambrian Franks. Their history appears later in the "Compendium", chapter XII A.

CHAPTER III -- ABRAHAM IN EARLY EUROPEAN HISTORY

For centuries students have been taught that Europe was one of late areas of the world to become civilized. Educational tradition would have us believe that Egyptians were erecting mighty temples of stone, had wide astronomical knowledge, knew how to write, thousands of years before Western Europe came to the threshold of civilization. While Egyptians and Babylonians were arrayed in gorgeous robes and painted with cosmetics, historians would have Europe's forests sparcely populated with naked white savages. Europe's dominant place in world affairs is, we are told, a relatively new phenomenon.

Nothing could be further from the truth!

EUROPE'S EARLY HISTORY SUPPRESSED

European civilization -- and its history -- is as old as Egypt's. But it has been suppressed. Not since the close of the seventeenth century has it been allowed to be taught publicly. It did not happen in a day. It took centuries of calculated plotting and ridicule to wipe from the pages of history the record of early Europe. Historians and theologians have conspired together to label Europe's early history as "myth." Their motive is plain. If theologians and historians had allowed the early history of Europe to be taught in schools and universities, they would have had to admit the authenticity and the authority of the Bible. THAT they did not want to do.

Had they not expunged the early events of Europe every one today would be reading of the journeys of Noah, Shem, Heber, Asshur and many other Biblical heroes into Europe. Children would be reading in schools today of the early settlement of Assyrians and Chaldeans in Western Europe. They would know where the "Ten Lost Tribes" of the House of Israel migrated.

All this has been purposely hidden. But it has not all been lost.

Scattered through the writings of scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are fragmentary records which unveil what really happened in Europe. In museums and libraries, in state archives are still to be found documents of hoary antiquity corroborating the Biblical record.

This chapter contains the account of one of those documents. It is a history of the Danubian Valley -- the area of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Bavaria and neighboring regions. The document is the "Oesterreichische Chronik" -- the Austrian Chronicle. It has never before been rendered into modern English. A number of copies of the Chronicle are scattered throughout Europe. The last entry in the Chronicle is of the year 1404.

ABRAHAM IN THE AUSTRIAN CHRONICLE

The Austrian Chronicle begins its consecutive history with a man of princely birth -- none other than the patriarch Abraham! But what has Abraham to do with the history of the Danubian Valley in Europe? Very much. The most ancient Greek name for the Danube River was the River Noe. Noe is the Greek form of the Hebrew Noah.

Noah was the patriarch of the whole human family following the flood. His patriarchal authority passed on to Shem, who superseded his older brother Japheth. In each succeeding generation the hereditary right of the firstborn was passed on from father to son. Terah was eighth in descent from Shem (Genesis 11:10-26), and the heir to Noah and Shem. Terah had, according to the Biblical record, three sons. The oldest, Haran, was born when Terah was 70 years old (Gen. 11:26). He died before his father Terah did (Gen 11:28). "And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." Why Haran died young will be made plain shortly from the Austrian Chronicle.

Replacing Haran as heir was Terah's second son, Abram (whose name was later changed to Abraham).

In the year 1941 God called Abraham to forsake his kindred, his country -- everything. "Now the Lord said unto Abram: 'Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto the land that I will show thee. And I will bless thee, and make thy name great ...'" (Gen. 12:1-2).

Abram had to give up his hereditary privileges. Though he was a "mighty prince" (Gen. 23:6), he willingly forsook his inherited rights.

"So Abram went, "declares verse 4.

Now consider the Austrian Chronicle. It begins with the birth of Abram (he is called Abraham throughout the Chronicle) under the Assyrian Count Sattan of Aligem (sect 41). (Several of the earliest geographic names in the Chronicle are otherwise unknown from contemporary records.) Abram "took to wife Susanna from the land of Samam, the daughter of Terromant and his wife Sanyet." Of this union we read in Scripture: "And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. But unto the sons of the concubines, that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country" -- Assyria (Gen. 25:5-6).

From the Austrian Chronicle we learn that "Abraham and Susanna had a son Achaim." Then "Abraham of Temonaria and Count Sattan of Aligemorum had war with each other, till Abraham was driven from the land in poverty." It was in this war that Haran, Abram's older brother, was slain. Abram was driven out of Count Sattan's realm and fled to the Danube River Valley in 1945, according to the Chronicle. There he built a home and settled until the death of Count Sattan.

It was now 1942 -- three years after Abram fled. Abram, according to the Chronicle, took Achaim and Susanna and went to the land of Judeisapta -- "the Jews' land" -- Palestine, according to the Bible.

(The later scribes who copied the Austrian Chronicle assumed it was the Danube Valley because Jews were later settled there also.) From Palestine Abraham sent away eastward to Assyria Susanna and Achaim (in Isaac's second year). From there they journeyed to the Danubian settlement Abram made years before. The previous chapter revealed that the Danubian Valley was then under Assyrian hegemony.

The following sequence of landgraves and dukes is taken from the standard text of the "Oesterreichische Chronik" -- the Austrian Chronicle. Variations in spelling are at times included. The lengths of reign and dates are in every case those of the Chronicle, which correctly preserves the chronology beginning three years before the call of Abram.

Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates Abraham 30 1945-1915 Susanna, Abraham's 19 1915-1896 concubine, departs Palestine for Assyria, and then the Danubian Valley.

Achaim, Abraham and 45 1896-1851 Susanna's son, married a Hungarian countess named Nannaym. They had four children; one daughter, Volim; another, Rawlint; a son, Laptan; and a third daughter, Remmanna.

Raban -- Volim's husband, 45 1851-1806 a baron from Bohemia; they have one son, Laptan. He changed the name of his duchy from Arratim to Sawricz.

Laptan -- Raban and 3 1806-1803 Volim's son, dies without wife and heir.

Laptan, Achaim's son, 49 1803-1754 marries a countess from Bohemia by name of Rama.

They added Steiermark to their hereditary land.

Had two sons, Rimer and Nynter.

Rymer, died without wife (6 months) (1754) and heir.

Nymer (Nynter), made the 52 1754-1702 margraviate to a dukedom, called himself "Nynter, a Heathen, duke of Sawricz." Married a duchess called Sinna. Only son is Lynal.

Lynal, called the land 32 1702-1670 Sannas, after his wife; married a countess from Hungary called Synna. They had three children: a son, Rantan; a daughter, Lengna; and another son, Poyna.

Rantan, died without wife (3 months) (1670) and heir.

Poyna (Peynna, Pyna), 51 1670-1619 Lynal's youngest son, married a duchess from Bohemia, named Sanna. They had four children: a daughter, Sinna, and three sons, Pynan, Lippan, and Rimman.

Pynan, died without wife and 1 1619-1618 neir.

Lippan, died without wife (14 days) (1618) and heir.

Rymman, died without wife (6 months) (1618) and heir.

Zawan (Zaban, Sawan), 61 1618-1557 Synna's husband, a Hungarian duke. They have one son Rattan.

Rattan (Nattan) marries a 67 1557-1490 duchess from Bohemia, named Sanna. They had two sons, Reymar and Noro.

Reymar (Rymmar) died (1 1/2 months) (1490) without wife and heir.

Noro (Nero), marries a 43 1490-1447 wife from Carinthia, named Lenna; they had two children, a daughter, Sanna; and a son, Aucz.

Aucz, changed the name 57 1447-1390 of the land from Sannas to Pannaus, called him self "Aucz, a Heathen." Married Lenna, a duchess from Bohemia. They had one son, Nonas.

Nonas, marries Lenna, a 57 1390-1333 duchess from Lanazz. They had a daughter, Sinna.

Tanton (Tonton), count 40 1333-1293 from Panticz, marries Sinna; they had two sons, Tatan and Remar. Remar died before his father.

Tatan (Taton), marries 61 1293-1232 duchess from Bohemia, named Synnan (Synna); both later buried at the Danube near Vienna. They had two daughters, Sanna and Lany (Lanus). Older daughter died a year after father.

Mantan (Manthan, Mathan), 49 1232-1183 a duke from Bohemia, marries Lany. They had a` son, Manan.

Manan, marries Hungarian 59 1183-1124 countess, Lenna. They had a son Nanaym, and a daughter Senna. Senna died before her father.

Nanaim (Nananaym, Nanaym) 38 1124-1086 marries Menna (Manna), a Hungarian duchess. They had two daughters, Lenna and Zema (Sema), and a son Ramaim.

Lenna died unmarried. Ramaim (Ramaym) died a year after his father.

Mangais (Mangaizz, Mangrizz, 46 1086-1040 Magais), a duke from Hungary, marries Zema. He changes the name of the land from Pannauz (Pannawz) to Tantamo (Tantamus). He calls himself "Mangais, a Heathen." They had one son Manan.

Manan, marries a 55 1040-985 Bohemian duchess named Sinna (Suma, Sanna, Samia).

They had one daughter, Semna (Senna).

Laptan, a Hungarian duke 67 985-918 marries Semna. They had one son, Lanan.

Lanan, married Sanna (Senna), 51 918-867 a duchess from Bohemia. They had two daughters, Sanna and Senna, and a son, Maran.

Senna died before her father.

Maran, died without wife and (6 months) (867)

heir Manay, a duke from Bohemia, 54 867-813 marries Sanna. They had a son, Tantan (Tanton), and a daughter, Lemna (Lenna).

Lemna died unmarried.

Tantan, married Hungarian 57 813-756 duchess named Malan (Malon).

They had two sons, Zanan (Sanan, Janan) and Peyman, and a daughter, Peynin (Peyn, Peymin).

Zanan, died without wife (3 months) (756) and heir.

Peyman, married Hungarian 48 756-708 duchess named Lanna. They had three sons, Nanman (spelled also Nannan, Mannan, and Nanan), Gennan and Saptan.

After the death of Peyman and Lanna, who had both been heathen, the "Oesterreichische Chronik" records that the whole country accepted the Jewish faith! The next chapter reveals how and why it happened!

CHAPTER IV -- JEWS GAIN POWER IN DANUBE CIVILIZATION

How did this unique influence of the Jews in Eastern Europe begin? Scholars and historians -- many of them Jews -- have puzzled over the presence of the huge Jewish population in Eastern Europe. There is no recorded evidence that they migrated from Babylon after the Babylonian captivity. Nor are they the descendants from the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in A.D. 70.

Who, then, brought the Jews into Eastern Europe seven centuries before the birth of Jesus.

The answer has been in the Bible all these years! It is found in II Kings 18:13-16. "Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them. And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying: 'I have offended; return from me; that which thou puttest on me will I bear.' And the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's house. At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the Lord, and from the door-posts which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria." A parallel account may be read in either II Chronicles 32 or Isaiah 36.

Notice the dates of this event -- the fourteenth year of Hezekiah -- 711-710. Sennacherib was at this time associated with his father on the throne of Assyria. A vigorous general, he captured all the fortified cities of Judah except Jerusalem, enslaved the inhabitants.

Where he carried them had been unknown to historians. But the answer is preserved for us in the "Austrian Chronicle". He carried them into Eastern Europe along the Danube River. But how could an Assyrian king of Nineveh plant tens of thousands of Jewish captives in Europe? -- because Central Europe was then part of the Assyrian Empire.

JEWISH KINGS FROM AUSTRIAN CHRONICLE

Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates Gennan, middle son of Peyman, 4 708-704 became duke. He was overcome, records the Austrian Chronicle, by the Jews and was circumcised, accepted Jewish marriage customs, put away images and acknowledged the Hebrew faith. He called himself "Gennan, a Jew." There were not yet any Jewish noble, willing to give their daughters in marriage to him. So he died without wife and heir.

Nanman and Saptan, sons of 61 704-643 Peyman, split the country.

Nanman chose the lower and Septan the upper part.

Nanman married a Hungarian duchess called Meynin (Mennin).

Saptan became the Master over his brother and over all the land, also changed its name to Mittanauz. He married a Bohemian duchess called Salaim (Salan, Salann, Salim), who was a Jewess. They had two sons, Tanton and Rippan.

Tanton died without wife before his father.

Rippan, a Jew, married a 57 643-586 countess from Penenaw (Pennawe), named Menna. They had one son, Lantawz, and two daughters, Pamyn and Rachaym. Lantawz and Pamyn (Panym) died unmarried before their father.

Salant, a Jew, a duke from 45 586-541 Hungary, married Rachaim.

They had one son, Piltan II (Pilton, Pilkan) who died.

After both this son and Salant had died, Rachaim remarried.

Laptan, a Jew from Bohemia, 15 541-526 married Rachaim. Changed the name of the land from Mittanauz (Mittenaus) to Fannau (Fannawe). They died without an heir.

At that time there ruled 40 526-486 a Jewish duke in Hungary, called Almantan. He usurped the power and conquered the dukedom of Fannaw. Almantan brought with him his wife, a Bohemian duchess, named Schlammyn (Schalmmyn). She was Jewish. They had two sons, Rantanaiz and Halman (Halbman). Halman became duke of Hungary.

Rantanaiz (Rattans), in 57 486-429 his day the name of the land was changed from Fannaw to Aurata. He called himself "Rattanaiz, a Jew." Married Bohemian duchess called Sawlin (Sawlim). They had a son who died without name, and a daughter, Lenna.

Rettan, Hungarian duke, 45 429-384 marries Lenna. He changed the name of the land from Aurata to Fyla. They had a son, Manton (Montan).

Flanton, married Sanna, 54 384-330 a duchess from Bavaria.

They had a son, Hegan and a daughter, Semyn. Hegan died unmarried before his father.

Rattan, a Hungarian duke, 39 330-291 marries Semyn. They had one son, Attalon.

Attalon, married a Bohemian 57 291-234 duchess, Magalim. They had three sons, Raban, Penyn and Effra, and Semna, a daughter. Semna died young. Penyn also died without wife and heir.

Raban (Rawan, Raban), (6 months) (234) married a Bohemian duchess called Sancta (Santta, Santla). They died without Elelr.

Effra, Attalon's youngest 49 234-185 son, married Hungarian duchess, Samaym, who was Jewish. They had one son, Naban.

Naban, married a Hungarian 52 185-133 duchess, a Jewess, Samanna.

They had a son, Rolan, and a daughter, Signa who died unmarried.

Rolan (Nolan), changed the 32 133-101 name of the land from Fyla to Rarasma. Married a Hungarian duchess, Sanna.

They had two daughters, Eminna and Sanna. Eminna died unmarried.

Remar (Reinar, Reimar), 53 101- 48 a Bohemian duke, married Sanna. They had one son, Natan.

Natan, married Hungarian 41 48- 7 duchess, Satym (Satyn).

They had two daughters, Masym and Rachym.

Masym, a duchess. She 2 1/2 7- 5 died before marrying. Her sister Rachym obtained the duchy.

Raban (Naban), a Bohemian 51 5 B.C. to 47 A.D.

duke, married Rachim. They had two sons, Lanat (Lenat, Lamer, Laniar), and Sannet (Samet, Samer). Lanat died young.

Sannet, married a Hungarian 34 47- 81 duchess, Enna. They had a son, Laban, and a daughter, Racha (spelled also Ratha, Rachaym, Rathaym). Laban died before his father.

Saptan, duke from Bohemia 42 81-123 married Racha. They had a son, Salamet (Salamer), and a daughter, Semna (Sanna, Senna). Salamet died unmarried before his father.

Rolant, a Bohemian duke 52 123-175 marries Semna. They had a son, Rattan, a daughter, Amama II (Amania), and another son, Jannat (Jannas, Jannet, Jamer). Rattan and Amama died without heir before their father.

Jannat (Jannett Janner), 51 175-226 changed the name of his inheritance from Rarasma to Corrodancia. Married a Bohemian duchess called Samanna. They had a son, Manton (Montan). With him ended the predominance of the Jewish faith, and the land lapsed again to Heathenism.

Manton 45 226-271 In his time heathen from Hungary and other lands forced Manton to become a heathen and to pray to images. "He called himself Manton, a Heathen." He married a heathen duchess from Hungary, named Signa. They had two sons, Natan (Mathan) and Reptan. Reptan died young and unmarried.

END OF JEWISH PREDOMINANCE

The sudden influx of heathenism in the hitherto predominantly Jewish patrimony was due to a mass migration from the east. This was the period of the last famous Odin or Wodan -- king of the Saxons from 256-300. He led numerous tribes from Eastern Europe following the Roman attack upon Dacia (the modern Romania). The story of Wodan will be made plain in a succeeding chapter.

Natan, married a duchess 51 271-322 from Hungary named Salymna (Salynna). They had two sons, Salanata and Hemna (Hemma, Henna, Honna). The latter died without heir.

Salanata, married a 41 322-363 Bohemian duchess called Alamynn. They had one son, Rattan, a heathen.

Rattan, married a Bohemian 32 363-395 duchess, Sympna (Synna, Symna). They had a son, Fultan (Sultan, Fulkan, Fullan) who died without heir before his father.

Rolant, a heathen Hungarian 51 395-446 duke was established in Corrodancia by the Romans.

He brought along his wife, a Bohemian duchess called Salympna (Salymna). They had one son, Sattan.

Sattan, married a Hungarian 51 446-497 duchess, Samynna. From now on the dukes in Corrodancia, were Catholic nobles. Sattan and Samynna died without an heir.

The Romans established Amman, a noble count, in Corrodancia. He secretly believed and practiced Catholicism.

Amman, changed the name 43 497-540 of the land from Corrodancia to Avara. He brought along his wife Helena, a secret Christian. Later known as "St. Amman" and "St. Helena," they converted much of the population. When the Romans found it out they slew Amman and many of the people, but not Helena. They had three sons, Johanns, Albrecht, and Dietreich. A11 three became dukes of Avara and changed the name to Osterland.

They split the land and Johanns became the chief over his two brothers.

Johanns, married a 32 540-572 noble countess from Rome called Anna. They had no heir. Albrecht became duke of Osterland, since Dietreich died shortly after Johanns.

Albrecht, changed the 31 572-603 name of the land from Osterland to Oesterreich -- now the official name of Austria. He married a duchess from Bohemia, Katherin. They had a son Eberhart, a daughter Ann, and another son, Johanns.

Johanns and Anna died shortly after their father.

Eberhart, married Osanna, 32 603-635 a duchess from Bavaria.

They had two sons, Jacob and Albrecht. They both died before father and mother Thereafter the land was turned into a margraviate.

Hainreich, duke from Bohemia 30 635-665 was given Austria by the Roman emperor. Hainreich (Henry), became Margrave of Austria. He brought with him his wife, a duchess from Hungary named Ursula. They had no heir.

Otto -- Hainreich granted 18 665-683 Austria to Otto of Hungary.

He styled himself "Otto, by the grace of God, Margrave of Austria and Duke of Hungary." Married a duchess from Bohemia called Elsbet. They had two sons, Chunrat and Johans.

Johans died young.

Chunrat, made the 50 683-733 margraviate a dukedom. He styled himself "Chunrat, by the grace of God a Roman king, always a multiplier of the empire, and duke of Austria. His wife was Anna, a Hungarian duchess. They had three sons, Hainreich, Steffan and Albrecht. They split the land and Albrecht became chief.

Albrecht, married a 49 733-782 Bohemian duchess, Salme (Salome). They had two sons, Ludweig and Fridreich.

They divided the land.

Ludweig, was the higher 32 782-814 duke in Austria. Married a duchess from Hungary named Elena. They had a son, Johannes and a daughter, Dorothea, who died before her father.

Johannes, married a duchess 49 814-863 from Bohemia called Anna.

They had one son, Hainreich.

Hainreich, married a 31 863-894 duchess from Hungary named Ursula. They had three sons, Johanns, Steffan and Philipp. Steffan and Philipp died young.

Johannes, married Margareta, 28 894-922 duchess from Bohemia. They had two sons, Albrecht and Ludweig. Albrecht died unmarried prior to his father.

Ludweig, married a duchess 42 922-964 from Hungary called Elsbet.

They had one son, Albrecht.

Albrecht, married a duchess 28 964-992 from Bohemia, Osanna. They had two sons, Ott and Hainreich.

Ott died unmarried prior to his father.

Albrecht was a contemporary of Leopold, duke of the rising House of Babenberg. Leopold was appointed by Otto II of Germany as supreme ruler of the Austrian mark.

Hainreich, or Henry, 28 992-1020 succeeded; married a Hungarian duchess called Margareta. They had two sons, Peter and Johanns, and a daughter, Elisabet (Elspeth).

Peter and Johanns 1 1/2 1020-1021 Johanns was duke jointly with Peter of Austria for a year and a half, when he died without wife and heir. Peter 3 1021-1024 succeeded as duke for three years and also died without heir. His dukedom passed to the Babenbergs.

In 976 the chief authority in Austria had passed to the House of Babenberg. The powerful rule of the Babenbergs -- and the interrelationships of the royal families -- may be found in any thorough English or German history of Austria. The Babenbergs became extinct in 1246. Thereafter the realm passed into the hands of the famous Hapsburgs.

With this the history of early southeastern Europe, which began in the days of Abraham, closes.

CHAPTER V -- THE CONQUESTS OF ODIN AND DANISH HISTORY

Many a school boy has heard of Odin, the great Norse hero. But how many realize that Odin was a real king of Denmark? That he founded the kingdom of Denmark in the days of David, king of Israel? That he visited Solomon's temple? of that Odin was the first Danish king to cross the Atlantic -- as did Danish Vikings centuries later? For centuries Danes revered the history of their nation. Not until the atheistic educational philosophy of German schools permeated their country did the Danes discard the early history of their nation. Modern historians, imbued with the idea that myth was the only form in which early man knew how to write, treat all Danish history as myth. They have never investigated to see whether it were so. of course myth was grafted in the Middle Ages on the early history of Denmark. That tragedy befell all nations under the sway of religious superstition in the Middle Ages.

But that does not prove that the essential core of early Danish history is invalid. Today historians labor under the delusion that history was artificially created after traditional mythology had long been established. Not so. Recorded and traditional history around the world was carefully preserved in palaces and royal libraries. Only later did myth embrace history,

WHAT THE HISTORY OF DENMARK REVEALS

Now is the time to restore the lost history of Denmark. The most accessible outline of Danish history is that found in Anderson's "Royal Genealogies". Many other volumes contribute to the story, but only Anderson's work correctly preserves in English the chronology of the early period. Danish written history properly begins with the first king to bear rule over the Danish or Cymbric peninsula. That king was Danus I. In Danish history he is also called Dan I. He was the first Odin or Votan -- from the Hebrew "adonai" meaning "lord." Denmark originally received its name from the tribe of the Danaan.

It passed to the king who took the name of the subjects over whom he ruled.

King Dan I commenced his reign in 1040. This was the year of the break-up of the German realm. The division of German territory among the three sons of Wolfheim -- Kells, Gall and Hiller -- left the seafarers of the far northwest of Europe without leadership. To fill the void the German and Hebrew inhabitants of Denmark called upon the scion of the Trojan House to reign over them. That scion was Dan I. He lived at the time in Thrace.

THE GENEALOGY OF DAN I

The present kings of Northwestern Europe and Great Britain are all related to Dan I of Denmark. The "Saxon Chronicle" commences the line of Dan I with the following two names: "Noah, Sem." Thereafter a long break occurs in the genealogy -- similar to the Biblical statement: "Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham" (Matthew l:l).

This gap in Odin's genealogy is partially filled in by the Icelandic "Langfedgatal". After Sem, the "Langfedgatal" gives the following genealogy on Odin's father's side: "Saturnus of Krit Jupiter Darius Erichhonius Troes Ilus Lamedon Priam, King of Troy Minon or Memnon, who married Priam's daughter. Their son was Tror, whom we call Thor, the father of Hloritha.

Thor Einridi Vingethorr Vingener Moda Magi Seskef, or Sescef." In Danish literature Seskef -- sometimes spelled Sceaf -- is a title of Odin. It means a "sheaf" of grain. Odin claimed to be a kind of savior, or a lord. He laid claim to being the sheaf that symbolically represented the Messiah (Leviticus 23:9-14).

But why should Dan I, a king of Denmark, copy a ceremony perpetuated by the law of Moses? Is there a connection between Odin and Israel?

The answer is found in who Saturnus of Krit, ancestor of Odin, really was. In modern English the name would be Saturn of Crete. There were many Saturns in antiquity, often confused with one another.

Usually the name was applied to a man who flees or who hides himself.

Saturn is a Latin word derived from a root meaning to flee into hiding. The Greek term was Kronos. This particular Saturn of Crete was so famous that the Phoenician historian Sanchoniathon spoke of him.

Fragments of his works have been preserved by Eusebius in "Preparation of the Gospel", book i, ch. x. Here are his words: "For Kronus or (Saturn), whom the Phoenicians call Israel ...." ("Corey's Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and other Authors", by E. Richmond Hodges, page 21.)

Israel was the name of Jacob. That would make Odin a son of Shem and a son of Jacob. But why was Jacob called Saturn? Because Jacob became famous for fleeing or hiding from his enemies. Jacob's mother warned him of his brother Esau's wrath: "Now, therefore, my son, hearken to my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother in Haran" (Genesis 27:43). "And it was told Laban ... that Jacob was fled" -- this time back to Palestine. (Gen. 31:22).

But how is one to account for the title to Crete in Jacob's name?

Certainly Jacob did not have title to it prior to descending into Egypt. The answer is, Jacob obtained it from Pharaoh in Egypt.

Here are the facts. Egypt was a vast Mediterranean power in the days of Jacob. One of the areas early settled by Egyptians was the island of Crete, an important naval gateway in the Mediterranean. From Crete -- Caphtor in Hebrew -- came the Philistines (Jer. 47:4 and Amos 9:7). The Philistines descended from Mizraim, father of the Egyptians (Gen. 10:13-14). Ruling over the Egyptians and Philistines in Crete and the eastern Nile Delta was a little-known dynasty of Egyptian kings.

They are mentioned in the "Book of Sothis" by Sncellus. Manetho does not include them among his dynasties.

The king of this dynasty, who was subject to the jurisdiction of the great Pharaoh in Egypt, was Rameses (l744-1715). Because of Joseph's service to the Egyptian government, the Pharaoh transferred primary title to the Land from the line of Rameses to the line of Israel -- and that included not only Goshen, but Crete!

And that is how Israel (Jacob) anciently obtained title to the island of Crete.

The "Langfedgatal" genealogy of Odin of Denmark may therefore be clarified as follows:

Saturnus of Krit -- Israel or Jacob (1856-1709)

Jupiter, son of Saturn of Krit -- Judah Darius, descendant of Jupiter (Judah) -- is Dara or Darda (see the family name in I Chronicles 2:4,6); Josephus calls him Dardanus (1477-1412); he fled Italy and founded Troy (the Norse geneaology skips the names of Tarah and Mahol between Judah and Darda) Erichhonius -- Ericthonius (1412-1366), second king of Troy Troes -- Tros (1366-1326), third king of Troy Ilus -- Illus (1326-1277), fourth king of Troy Lamedon -- Laomedon (1277-1233), fifth king of Troy Priam -- Priamus (1233-1181), king of Troy during first Trojan war.

Eighth in descent from Priam was Seskef, who was Danus I or Odin (Votan), first king of Denmark -- 1040-999. Odin was a Hebrew, of the line of Judah, from whom the chief rulers were to come. "For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him came the chief ruler" (I Chron. 5:2).

Now consider over whom Odin ruled in Northwest Europe.

"HU THE MIGHTY"

King Danus' realm extended far beyond the reaches of the Danish peninsula. The people over whom he ruled were a collection of tribes which constituted the greatest sea power of the time -- the Pelasgians or sea people. From the list of sea powers, commented on in Volume I of the Compendium, it is proved that the Pelasgians were Hebrews and their allies. Their chief center of habitation was Palestine. Denmark was one of several overseas settlements. Israel gained power in 1057, shortly before the break-up of Germany in Europe. They retained it until 972, when Solomon's kingdom in Palestine was split. For the Israelites to have obtained dominion of the sea in 1057 in the Mediterranean and Atlantic presupposes that they already were living along the western shores of Europe before that date.

When and how did the Children of Israel migrate to Western Europe?

The answer is found in Cymbric or Welsh history.

A fragmentary Welsh record, called the Welsh Triad, reads as follows: "First was the race of the Cymry, who came with Hu Gadarn to Ynys Prydain." Hu came from "the land of summer" -- a land located somewhere in what later constituted the realm of Constantinople (the capital of the eastern Roman Empire). He journeyed to Ynys Pridain -- the Welsh name of the Isle of Britain. This first major settlement preceded the migration in 1149 of Brutus of Troy to Britain.

Who was Hu Gadarn? Gadarn is a Welsh word. It means the "Mighty." Hu was a short form of the Old Celtic name Hesus ("Origines Celticae", by Edwin Guest, vol. 2, p. 9). Hesus is the Celtic -- and also the Spanish -- pronunciation of Jesus. Was there a famous "Jesus" who lived in the balmy summerland of the eastern Mediterranean centuries before the time of Jesus the Christ? Most certainly! It is found in Hebrews 4:8, "For if Jesus that is, Joshua) had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day." Jesus was merely the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua. Hu or Hesus the Mighty was Joshua the Mighty, the great general who led Israel into Palestine. And the Welsh Triad records that in his later years he also settled Israel peaceably in the British Isle. From there, for trading purposes, they spread to the coasts of the continent which were subject to the German Cymry -- the descendants of the German king Cimbrus (1679-1635). That is how Israel in Denmark came to be known by the tribal name of Cymry.

As time elapsed the peninsula of Denmark became a chief area of trade and commerce. It is strategically located to dominate both North and Baltic sea trade. So together with the original German tribes of the Cymry and Dauciones were migrants from Britain. In 1040 the Hebrew Cymry called for a descendant of Judah, a royal scion of the House of Troy, to rule over them. Odin answered the call and led a migration out of Thrace into Denmark and neighboring regions. The deeds of Odin upon becoming king over the Cymry (sometimes spelled Cymbri) will be included in a later section on the American Indian.

THE KINGS OF DENMARK

Below is the genealogical and historical line of Judah that descended from Odin. Through intermarriage the line of Odin has permeated throughout Western Europe. Small wonder that the lion of Judah is the symbol on the coat of arms and shields of the royalty of Northwestern Europe. Kings of Denmark Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Danus I, or Odin 41 1040-999 first king of Denmark

2. Humblus, son of Odin 8 999-991

3. Lotherus, son of Odin 17 991-974

4. Boghius 5 974-969

5. Scioldus, son of Lotherus 80 969-889

6. Gram (or Gran) 31 889-858 Slain by Suibdagerus, a king of Norway, in battle; wives were Groa a Swede, and Signe of Finland.

7. Suibdagerus 40 858-818 King of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, who, by force, married Gran's daughter and conquered Denmark.

8. Guthormus, son of Queen Signe 14 832-818 Reigned 14 years contemporary with Suibdagerus.

9. Hadingus, another son of 54 818-764 Signe and Gram

10. Frotho I, son of Hadingus 77 764-687

11. Haldanus I, son of Frotho 56 687-631

12. Rhoe, son of Haldanus 63 631-568

13. Helgo, son of Haldanus 34 628-594 Reigned contemporary with his brother.

14. Rolvo, son of Helgo by his 41 568-527 own daughter Ursa. Became king after death of Rhoe; was killed by Attile, king of Sweden, who conquered Denmark.

15. Hotherus, great-grandson 42 527-485 of Hadingus, son of king Hotobrodus of Sweden.

King of Denmark and Sweden.

16. Roric Slyngeband, son of 49 485-436 Hotherus

17. Wigletus, son of Roric 48 436-388

18. Guitalchus 32 388-356

19. Vermundus, son of Wigletus 61 356-295

20. Uffe, son of Vermundus 30 295-265

21. Danus II, son of Uffe 37 265-228

22. Hugletus the Little, son 52 228-176 of Danus II

23. Frotho II, son of Hugletus 30 176-146

DENMARK ENTERS ROMAN HISTORY

24. Danus III, son of Frotho 69 146- 77 In his time the German Cymbrians joined the Teutons in a terrible war against Rome in 113. Italy would have been conquered if the consul Marius had not defeated them utterly.

25. Fridlevus I, the Swift, 37 77- 40 son of Danus

26. Frotho III, the Pacific, 54 40- 15 son of Fridlevus ("A.D.") King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway. INTERREGNUM for nearly 4 years 15- 19

27. Hiarnus, a poet 2 19- 21

28. Fridlevus II, son of Frotho 12 21- 33

29. Frotho IV, the Liberal, 46 33- 79 son of Fridlevus

30. Ingellus Wendemothius, 23 79-102 son of Frotho

31. Olaus I, son of Ingellus 10 102-112

32. Haraldus I, reigned 5 112-117 contemporary with brother

33. Frotho V, brother of 19 112-131 Haraldus

34. Haraldus II, son of 10 131-141 Haraldus I

35. Haldanus II, son of 15 131-146 Haraldus II Reigned 10 years contemporary with brother, 5 years alone.

36. Unquinus, king of Gothland, 9 146-155 succeeded son-in-law Haldanus in Denmark.

37. Sivaldus I, son of Unquinus 22 155-177

38. Sigarus, son of Sivaldus 13 177-190

39. Sivaldus II, son of 11 190-201 Sigarus INTERREGNUM -- Rule of 40 201-241 5 governors

40. Haldanus III, married 20 241-261 Guritha, granddaughter of Sigarus.

41. Haraldus III, (Hilletand 66 261-327 or Hilderand), son of Haldanus; died in Sweden after a seven-year war, during which time his daughter Haditha governed Denmark.

42. Olaus II, brother of 4 327-331 Haditha

43. Osmund, son of Olaus 10 331-341

44. Sivardus I, son of 9 341-350 Osmund

45. Buthlus, brother of 1 350-351 Sivardus

46. Jarmericus, son of 16 351-367 Sivardus

47. Broderus, son of 2 367-369 Jarmericus

48. Sivaldus III, son of 9 370-379 Broderus

49. Snio (or Sino), son of 22 379-401 Silvaldus. The next seven kings lived mostly abroad. They succeeded each other as father and son.

50. Roderic 10 401-411

51. Sueno I 55 411-467

52. Guitlachus 50 467-517

53. Haraldus IV 46 481-527

54. Eschyllus 16 527-543

55. Veremundus 78 543-621

56. Osmund II 75 621-696 The following kings lived in Denmark.

57. Biorno 4 696-701

58. Baldrus, son of Biorno 6 701-707

59. Haraldus V, son of Baldrus 8 707-715

60. Gormo I, son of Haraldus 50 715-765

61. Gotricus or Godfrey or 45 765-810 Sigfrid, commences invasions of England 787

62. Olaus III 1 810-811 Because Gotricus became the great legislator of the Danes, his reign is often begun from the year 777 as follows: Gotricus (or Godfrey), 33 777-810 called Sigfrid Olaus III or Olabus 2 810-812 Continuing:

63. Hemmingius or Hemmingus or 4 812-816 Heningus

64. Sivard II 2 816-818

65. Ringo, contemporary with 2 816-818 Sivard II

66. Regner 13 818-831

67. Harald VI 3 818-821

68. Sivard III, the last 3 831-834 heathen king of Denmark.

CHRISTIANITY INTRODUCED ON THE THRONE

69. Eric I, the first king of 1 834-835 Denmark to adopt Christianity. During much of this and the preceding period Denmark was plagued by joint reigns, disputed succession, and lesser kings who seized on part of the realm. Whole tribes left the peninsula to settle permanently in England. They were called Danes, but were, in fact, of Anglo-Saxon stock.

70. Eric II, called Barno, 24 835-859 the Child

71. Canute I, surnamed the 20 859-879 Small

72. Frotho VI 1 879-880

73. Gormo II (or Guthran or 13 880-893 Gormund)

74. Harald VII, Parcus, or the 8 893-901 Niggard

75. Gormo III or Guthram or 30 901-931 or Godrum or Gormund

76. Harald VIII, called Blaatand 48 931-979

77. Sueno II or Suen-Otto, 35 979-1014 called Forked Beard

78. Ericus, King of Sweden 7 988-995 became King of Denmark in 988 for 7 years, till slain by his own servants, when Suen-Otto was restored by Scottish assistance.

79. Canute II or King Knut 21 1014-1035 the Great, united Scandinavia under his realm, it fell apart at his death. Became king of England 1016.

From this date on any thorough work on Denmark will satisfactorily present its history. With the death of Canute a period of 2074 years ended since the founding of the monarchy.

CHAPTER VI -- SCOTLAND -- KEY TO HISTORY OF NEW WORLD

The Key to the history of the New World has been lost. Not a single historian or archaeologist knows the true origin of American Indian civilization. And no wonder! They have thrown away the keys to that history. One of those keys will be found in Danish history. The other -- and most important -- key in the checkered history of rugged Scotland.

WHAT HISTORIANS CLAIM

The famous eight-volume "History of Scotland", by John Hill Burton, begins the history of Scotland this way: "It is in the year 80 of the Christian era that the territory in later times known as Scotland comes out of utter darkness, and is seen to join the current of authentic history. In that year Julius Agricola brought Roman troops north ...." This is a typical -- but mistaken -- view of Scottish history.

Historians have made an idol out of Roman records. What the Romans either refused to preserve, or carelessly neglected to record, is all too often treated with contempt by modern historians. Scotland was never long under the Roman heel. The Romans were not particularly interested in its rocky highlands. Consequently they did not occupy themselves with recording the major events of the past that befell its inhabitants.

Today, numerous documents are available covering the history of Scotland from very early times. These chronicles are usually disparaged in historical circles -- or at most treated as quaint and curious documents. But to restore the lost history of Scotland from them is frowned on with disdain.

Yet in these records are the missing links which, until now, have sundered the Old World from the New. It is time the true story of Scotland were made known. Here, in outline form, are the major events that make Scottish history.

FIRST MAJOR SETTLEMENT

The geographic location of Scotland is important in its history. Scotland is the link between Scandinavia and Britain and Ireland. Its shores provide control of the far reaches of the North Sea and the ocean. Scotland was consequently invaded, peaceably and by frightful devastation, several times in its history. The first permanent settlement of Scotland, for which we have recorded history, begins with the coming of Danus I of Denmark in 1040.

When the Cimbric tribes called upon an heir of the Trojan throne to establish his domain in Denmark, Odin responded immediately.

Out of southeastern Europe he marched into Denmark. Coming with him was a mixed tribe known as the Agathyrsi. Agathirsi was their name, declares an old Scottish Chronicle. ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", by W. H. Gregg, p. 125.) Odin settled them in Scotland under their leader Cruithne -- after whom they were called Cruithnians or Cruithne. Herodotus, the Greek historian, traces the Agathyrsi to their origin in the Scythian plains of what is now the southern Ukraine The Agathyrsi were a mixed race. Various struggles led to a catastrophe among the Agathyrsi who came with Odin. They found themselves without women!

As a consequence they sought wives among neighboring tribes. They landed in Ireland at the time of the establishment of the Milesian monarchy under Ghede the Herimon (1016-1002). Following a few skirmishess an agreement was reached. The Milesians of Ireland agreed to give wives to the Agathyrsi from their daughters on one condition: that the Agathyrsi would pass on their inheritance through their daughters, not their sons. This was to acknowledge that any royalty which might follow derived kingship from their Milesian wives, not from the Agathyrsi men.

On this condition the Agathyrsi departed again for Scotland.

LINE OF JUDAH IN SCOTLAND

The women who journeyed in that day to Scotland were Milesians -- of the family of Mileadh. In volume I of the Compendium the history of the kingly line from Mileadh to the present throne in Great Britain was given in its entirety. Its ancient connection with the throne of David, in Judah, was made plain. But the genealogy of Mileadh was not included.

The line of Mileadh, in Irish records, properly begins with Easru in Egypt. The name Easru is Old Irish for Ezra or Azariah.

Easru was a friend of Moses. One Irish tradition has him crossing the Red Sea with the children of Israel. Another tradition has him journeying, after the Exodus, to Scythia. Irish annalists became confused by these two movements of Easru and his family. It never occurred to them that he might have crossed the Red Sea with Moses, and then, at a later time journeyed to Scythia.

No Irish records preserve the ancestry of Easru or Azariah. Many myths were later created by Irish monks to account for this blank. It seems not to have occurred to them that the Bible might record the ancestry of Easru, ending at the Exodus.

The previous volume of the Compendium established the significant fact that the symbol of the line of Easru and Mileadh was the Crimson or Red Branch -- signifying the royal line Zarah, Judah's son (Genesis 38:30). Now open the Bible to the genealogy of Judah. "And the sons of Zarah: Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara .... And the sons of Ethan: Azariah" (I Chronicles 2:6, 8).

Here is an Azariah, of the family of Judah -- and of Zarah, the Red Branch. Azariah was of the same generation as Moses -- both were great-great-grandsons of Jacob (compare with Exodus 6:16-20). Notice also that Azariah's descendants did not enter Palestine. His genealogy is not continued beyond the Exodus. That is significant.

Further, the name Azariah in Hebrew is often shortened to Ezra (see any Biblical encyclopaedia). Its Old Irish form would be Easru. So here we have an Azariah (or Ezra), of the same generation as Moses, Living at the time of the Exodus, whose descendants did not settle in Palestine, and who was of the Crimson Branch. At the same time Irish history reveals an Easru -- Old Irish for Azariah or Ezra -- living in Moses' day, crossing the Red Sea, but not settling in Palestine, whose descendants in after generations used the symbol of the Crimson Branch!

Here is the line of Zarah -- Judah! Easru is Azariah, Judah's great-great-grandson.

In chart form (from the Bible and Stokvis' Manuel) the Milesian princely line appears thus: Jacob Judah Zarah Ezra Ethan Azariah, who is Easru Sru Eibher Scot Beogamon Ogamon Tait Agnamhan Lamhfinn Heber Glunfionn Agnonfinn Eimhear Glas Nenuaill Nuadhat Aldoid Earchada Deaghata Bratha Breogan Bile Mileadh Ghede the Herimon, now gave daughters of the royal family to the Cruithne. From these noble women sprang a line of kings that finally united with the Scots in the person of Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843.

In after ages the Cruithne came to be known, falsely, as Picts.

The true Picts were another people altogether -- an uncivilized people who painted themselves. Because the Cruithne ruled over the Picts who lived in the Scottish highlands, later writers called them both "Picts." The wild, unsettled Picts later disappeared from Scotland.

Where? -- historians do not know. But Scottish history tells!

But first, to summarize the story of the half-Jewish kings who descended from the Cruithnians and the Hebrew Milesian women.

EARLIEST HISTORY OF SCOTLAND

The complete king list -- and an accurate chronology of all the kings of the Cruithne -- has come down to us in the "Pictish Chronicle." The record begins with the first settlement of the Agathyrsi in 1040. That is the year they were planted in Northwest Europe by Odin of Denmark, who led them out of their ancient homeland in Thrace.

The "Pictish Chronicle" begins with the name of Cruithne and seven sons, who divided the Scottish realm between them. The entire period from the first migration in 1040 to the death of Cruithne and his sons was 100 years. Thereafter the royal line was inherited from the mother's side, not the father's, in accordance with the original agreement with the Milesians.

The following chart is taken from the "Pictish Chronicle." King's Names Lengths of Reign Dates Cruidne (or Cruithne), 100 1040- 940 son of Cinge (or Kinne), father of the Agathyrsi dwelling in Scotland.

The seven sons of Cruithne: Circui 60 Fidaich 40 Forteim 70 Floclaid 30 Got 12 Ce, that is, Cecircum 15 Fibaid 24 The entire period of Cruithne and his seven sons is contained in the 100 years assigned to Cruithne. None of the sons' reigns can be dated. The kingship after 940 was passed on to the following: Gedeolgudach 80 940-860 Denbacan 100 860-760 Finnechta (Olfinecta) 60 760-700 Guididgaedbrecach 50 700-650 Gestgurtich 40 650-610 Wurgest 30 610-580 Brudebout 48 580-532 "From Brudebout descended 30 kings of the name of Brude, who reigned during 150 years in Ireland and in Albany," records the Chronicle. Albany was the seat of authority in Scotland. The following names indicate that the realm was divided into numerous principalities -- probably 15 -- over each of which two generations of kinglets reigned.

Thirty kings by name of Brude 150 532-382 Brude Gest Brude Uleo Brude Urgest Brude Gant Brude Point Brude Urgant Brude Urpoint Brude Gnith Brude Leo Brude Urgnith Brude Feth Brude Gart Brude Urfeichir Brude Urgart Brude Cal Brude Clnd Brude Urcal Brude Urclnd Brude Cint Brude Uip Brude Urcint Brude Uruip Brude Feth Brude Grith Brude Urfeth Brude Urgrith Brude Ru Brude Muin Brude Ero Brude Urmuin Gilgidi 101 382-281 Tharan 100 281-181 Morleo 15 181-166 Deocilunan 40 166-126 Cimoiod, son of Arcois 7 126-119 Deord 50 119- 69 Bliciblitherth 5 69- 64 Dectoteric, brother of Diu 40 64- 24 Usconbuts 30 24 B.C.- 7 A.D.

Carvorst 40 7- 47 Deoartavois 20 47- 67 Uist 50 67-117 Ru 100 117-217 Gartnaithboc 4 217-221 Vere 9 221-230 Breth, son of Buthut 7 230-237 Vipoignamet 30 237-267 Canutulachma 4 267-271 Wradech Vechla 2 271-273 Garnaichdi Uber 60 273-333 Talore, son of Achivir -- 75 333-408 (Nectanus, a contemporary Pictish king was slain in 361)

Drust, son of Erp or Irb 45 408-453 Though the "Pictish Chronicle" continues the history of the Cruithne without interruption, it is important that the list be stopped here to discover who Drust, the son of Erp, was.

EARLY LINE OF SCOTTISH KINGS

Erp is the Pictish name for the Scottish Erc. Who was this Erc? Late Scottish historians confused this Erp or Erc with Erc the father of Fearghus. Fearghus mac Erc reigned 513-529. This was about a century after Drust mac Erp (or Erc). The two Ercs are not the same person. This is clearly proved by all early Scottish historians. "In two particulars at least, none of the early writers have disagreed: that in the year 503 an invasion of Caledonia took place under the leadership of Fergus mac Erc, and that he and his followers had come to stay" ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", Gregg, page 35).

Then who was the other Erc whose son, a century earlier, returned to rule over the Picts? The answer is found in the early history of the Scots who migrated from Scythia in the year 331-330.

In 331 Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian realm. Many nations who had been held in virtual slavery gained their freedom. One of these people was the House of Israel. Israel was invaded in 721 by Shalmaneser of Assyria. After a three-year siege her people were taken into captivity. Ezekiel, over a century later was given a vision in which he saw that the House of Israel would not be released from their enslavement until 390 years had elapsed from the time of the siege of Samaria (Ezekiel 4:3-5). It was precisely 390 years from 721, when the siege against Samaria began, to 331, the date of the final overthrow of Persia and the deliverance out of captivity of the Hebrews. Some of them immediately commenced a migration to the land settled long before by their brethren. In the year 331-330 they journeyed out of Scythia to Scotland -- the word Scotland originally meant the land of the Scyths.

In Scotland they sent to Ireland for a Scythian-Mileslan prince, of the line of Mileadh, to rule over them. A prince was dispatched, together with a small army. His name was Fergus, the son of Ferquhard. It was his family from which Erp or Erc, the father of Drust, king of the "Picts,'' sprang. Before returning to complete the line of "Pictish" kings, we shall present a summary of the earliest kings to rule over the Scots in Scotland. (It should be remembered that Scotland and Pictland were but two of several early divisions of that land now known as Scotland.)

This material is taken from Boethus and Buchanan. The correct outline is that preserved in Anderson's "Royal Genealogies". Buchanan mistakenly shortens the total of the dynasty 16 years. But Roman history confirms the longer form preserved by Anderson on page 753.

First Kings of the Lengths of Reign Dates Scots

1. Fergus 25 330-305 He died in shipwreck off the coast of Ireland, where he went to quell some commotions.

2. Feritharis 15 305-290 Brother of Fergus succeeds, since Fergus' sons are too young.

3. Mainus 29 290-261 Fergus' younger son chosen king, the older, Ferlegus, being condemned for conspiring in his uncle's death.

4. Dornadilla 28 261-233 A son of Mainus

5. Nothatus 20 233-213 Dornadilla's brother; his own son too young to succeed to the throne. A very cruel and despotic ruler, he was slain.

6. Reuther 26 213-187 Dornadilla's son. Dowal, the murderer of Nothatus, exercised great influence over the still young Reuther.

7. Reutha 17 187-170 Son of Nothatus, cousin of Reuther. Reuther's brother rules for his nephew, who is only ten years old. Reutha resigned the government in favour of Thereus his nephew.

8. Thereus 12 170-158 Reuther's son. A cruel and unwise tyrant, driven into exile in his twelfth year, Conan elected viceroy.

9. Josina 24 158-134 Thereus' brother. He greatly honored physicians, as he had been educated among them.

10. Finnan 30 134-104 Josina's son. Established that kings should not decide on great matters without authority of the great council. Ne was devoted to Druidical superstitions.

11. Durstus 9 104- 95 Finnan's son. A vile and debauched ruler. Pretending to reform his life, he invited the nobles and had them slain. He was slain in the ensuing battle.

12. Evenus 19 95- 76 Paternal cousin to Durstus.

Exacted oath of allegiance from his subjects.

13. Gillus 3 76- 73 A crafty tyrant, slain by Cadwal, his viceroy, in battle.

14. Evenus II 17 73- 56 Son of Doval; grandson of Josina.

15. Ederus 48 56- 8 Son of Dochamus, Durstus' son.

16. Evenus III 7 8- 1 A wicked and licentious king; the son of Ederus.

He was put in prison by the nobles and there murdered by a fellow prisoner.

17. Metellanus 29 "1 B.C."- 29 "A.D." Son of Ederus' brother.

18. Caractacus 20 29- 49 Son of Cadallanus and of Eropeia, Metellanus' sister.

19. Corbred I 18 49- 67 Caractacus' brother.

20. Dardanus 4 67- 71 Metellanus' nephew. A cruel and licentious ruler, he was captured in battle and beheaded.

21. Corbred II. 35 71-106 Corbred's son. After many battles with the Romans, he died at peace.

22. Luctacus 3 106-109 A licentious prince, son of Corbred II. He was slain by his nobles.

23. Mogaldus (Mogallus) 36 109-145 Grandson of Galdus and maternal nephew of Lactacus, son of the sister of Corbred II.

Started his reign well but ended it in the ways of his predecessor. Was slain by the nobles.

24. Conarus 14 145-159 Mogaldus' son. He was a partner in the conspiracy against his father. He himself was a lecherous tyrant, was put in prison after only 2 years.

Argadus became governor; Conarus was finally slain in prison in 159.

25. Ethodius 33 159-192 Mogaldus' sister's son.

He was murdered for personal reasons by an Irish harper.

26. Satrael 4 192-196 Ethodlus' brother, the son was not yet mature enough.

This man murdered the nobles and friends of Ethodius, so he could do away with the sons, in order to keep the reign in his family. Was finally strangled by his own servants.

27. Donald I. 21 196-217 Another brother of Ethodius. The first "Christian king" of Scotland. First to coin gold and silver money in the land.

28. Ethodius II. 21 217-238 Son of Ethodius, an intellectually weak and base-minded man. Directed by his nobles, slain by own officers.

29. Athirco 12 238-250 Son of Ethodius. Began his reign decently, but degenerated and committed suicide when pursued by his nobles. Athirco's brother, Dorus, flees from the noble Nathalocus with the three sons of Athirco.

30. Nathalocau 12 250-262 A son of Athirco's brother, he usurped the kingdom; was a cruel tyrant and was slain by the nobles.

31. Findochus 11 262-273 A son of Athirco. A good ruler, he was slain by his own brother at the instigation of Donald the Islander.

32. Donald II. 1 273-274 Findochus' brother. In battle Donald is wounded and dies shortly after.

33. Donald III 12 274-286 Donald the Islander usurped the kingship without any right to it, and ruled very cruelly.

He was finally slain by Crathilinthus.

34. Crathilinthus 24 286-310 The son of Findochus, who was hidden for years.

After a long series of battles with the wild Picts, and after purging the land of the idolatrous superstition of the Druids and enforcing Christianity, he died.

35. Fincormach 47 310-357 Crathilinthus' cousin.

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A just ruler.

36. Romachus 3 357-360 Son of oldest brother of Crathilinthus. Obtained the kingdom by force from the two sons of two other brothers of Crathilinthus.

Defeated incursions of the wild Picts. His murder ended his evil reign.

37. Angusianus 1 360-361 Son of a brother of Crathilinthus. Angusianus was slain in battle with the Picts' king Nectanus.

38. Fethelmachus 3 361-364 Son of the third brother of Crathilinthus, Devastating the forces of the Picts in battle, they sent assassins who murdered the king.

39. Eugenius I (Evenus) 12 364-376 Fincormach's son. He was killed in battle against the Romans and their Pictish allies. The Scottish kingdom was obliterated. The dead king's brother, with his son Erc, and his grandson, fled to Denmark where he was received by Sivaldus III. The Scottish population scattered throughout Scandanavia.

The Romans soon turned on the Cruithne -- who were still dwelling in Pictland along with the wild Picts. The Cruithne were miserably oppressed. After three decades they came to an agreement with the Scots and promised to restore the Scots to the throne if they would deliver them from oppression. The son of Erc or Erp returned in 408 at the head of a Scottish army, delivered the Cruithne and restored the throne.

This son of Erc or Erp was not Ferghus, as later traditions assumed, but Drust, who became the new king of the Cruithne or Picts. Drust was famous in poetry for having fought 100 battles and lived 100 years. As he ended his reign in 453, he was born 353. He was therefore only 23 years old at the time of the flight of his grandfather and father.

Before continuing the remarkable history of the wild Picts which culminated in 503 in Scotland, we should continue with the line of Scottish kings who now sat on the throne over the Cruithne (or the Agathyrsi Picts).

KINGS OF CRUITHNE CONTINUED

 Kings of the Cruithne Lengths of Reign Dates (Drust, son of Erp or Erc 45 408-453) Talore, son of Aniel 4 453-457 Necton Morbet, son of Erp 25 457-482 Drest Gurthinmoth 30 482-512 Galanau Etelich 12 512-524 Dadrest 1 524-525 Drest, son of Gyrom 1 525-526 Drest, son of Udrost, reigned 5 526-531 jointly with Drest, son of Gyrom Drest, son of Gyrom, 5 531-536 continues to reign alone Gartnach, son of Gyrom 7 536-543 Cealtraim, son of Gyrom 1 543-544 Talorg, son of Muircholaich 11 544-555 Drest, son of Munait 1 555-556 Galam, with Aleth 1 556-557 Galam, with Brideo 1 557-558 Bride, son of Mailcon 30 558-588 Gartnaich, son of Domelch 11 588-599 Nectan 20 599-619 Cineoch, son of Luthrn 19 619-638 Garnard, son of Wid 4 638-642 Bridei, son of Wid 5 642-647 Talore, brother of the two 12 647-659 former kings Talorcan, son of Enfret 4 659-663 Gartnait, son of Donnel 6 663-669 Drest, brother of Gartnait 7 669-676 Bridei, son of Bill 21 676-697 Taran, son of Entisidich 4 697-701 Bredei, son of Derili 11 701-712 Necton, or Naitan, son of Derili 15 712-727 Drest and Alpin reigned together 5 727-732 Onnust, or Oengus, son of Urgust, 31 732-763 or Fergus Bredei, son of Uiurgust 2 763-765 Kinoid, or Kinoth son of Wirdech 12 765-777 Elpin, or Alpin son of Wroid 3 777-780 Drest, or Durst son of Talorgan 4 780-784 Talargan, son of Onnust 2 784-786 Canaul, son of Tarla 5 786-791 Castantin, or Constantine, son 30 791-821 of Urguist, or Fergus Unnust, or Hungus, son of Urguist 12 821-833 Drest, son of Constantine, and 3 833-836 Taloran, son of Utholl, reigned together. Uwen, or Eogan, son of 3 836-839 Unnust Wrad, son of Bargoit 3 839-842 Bred Brude 3 842-845 Keneth MacAlpin, first king 16 843-859 of all Scotland, united line of Cruithne (or "Picts") with the Milesian Scottish line of Ferghus mac Erc.

This completes the history of the Picts who descended from the intermarriage of the Cruithne and the Judaic Milesian royal house. From the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin the history of the throne of David has already been presented in volume I.

But what befell those wild, tribal Picts who gave their name to the Cruithne -- and who painted themselves? Remnants of them continued to be referred to as late as the seventeenth century. Most of the population, however, suddenly disappeared in 503 upon the coming of the Milesian Scots out of Ireland under the leadership of Fearghus mac Erc.

Those wild Picts were the people who left the many strange and intriguing remains in the Northern Isles of Britain -- the mounds, the flint knives, the stonehewn tombs, the carvings. The next chapter explains the link between Scotland and the New World.

CHAPTER VII -- THEY CROSSED THE ATLANTIC

The origin of the American Indian has puzzled Europeans from the day Columbus' sailors set foot on the Caribbean isle. Yet, just four centuries earlier, the New World was common knowledge to the educated in North Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Its natives were even embracing the faith of the Roman Church, which had appointed an Icelander of noble birth as bishop over Iceland, Greenland and the lands of the New World! How did these facts all become lost?

THE LITTLE ICE AGE

One is so accustomed to read of "Ice Ages" as events of the remote past, that it hardly occurs to the mind that thirteenth century Europeans witnessed a veritable Little Ice Age that completely severed communications between Europe and the New World. The Baltic froze over. Vikings ceased to traverse the inhospitable Atlantic. In the New World the Land of the White Man -- Hvitramanna Land in Icelandic literature -- lost contact with Europe. Centuries later remnants of their population were found among the natives which had early traversed the Atlantic with them.

This chapter unfolds what really happened in Western Europe, and especially the British Isles and Denmark, from the days of Solomon to long after the fall of the Roman Empire. It will explain the astounding chronological connection between the rise of New World civilization and the sudden flight of tribes out of Northwest Europe.

WHITES DID NOT BECOME INDIANS

First, let us immediately banish a myth. White Europeans did not become Indians by merely settling in the New World and becoming lost! The American Indians are not the "Lost Tribes of Israel," or Egyptians. The American Indian looks as he does because his ancestors appeared that way before they traversed the waters of the Atlantic.

It may come as a surprise to learn it, but Europe and the Mediterranean world was early -- and comparatively late -- inhabited by "Red Men." Everyone has heard of the famous Phoenician sailors of the ancient Mediterranean world. They are known to have traveled far out into the Atlantic and to Northwestern Europe. The Greeks called them Phoenicians because that is what they were -- "Red Men." The word "Phoenician" is derived from the Greek word for reddish dye. The ancient Egyptians painted the Phoenicians on their walled tombs and on papyri. Their skin color? Reddish. The Egyptians painted other peoples of Palestine white and black. They recognized three races of men living in Palestine in early ages.

Julius Firmicus, an early writer, stated that "in Ethiopia all are born black; in Germany, white; and in Thrace, red." Thrace was north of Greece and originally populated by the children of Tiras, son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2). It was from Thrace that Odin led the Agathyrsi and other tribes to Northwestern Europe when he founded the Danish kingdom.

Many of the warriors employed by the early princes of western Europe were fierce, of swarthy skin, naked and often tatooed and painted. Strabo, the Roman geographer, wrote that areas of Ireland and Britain were inhabited "by men entirely wild." Jerome, writing in one of his letters in the fifth century, characterizes some of them as cannibals: "When they hunted the woods for prey, it is said they attacked the shepherd, rather than his flock; and that they curiously selected the most delicate and brawny parts, both of males and females, for their horrid repast." In the eighteenth century, Martin, in his volume "Western Islands of Scotland", remarked that the complexion of the natives of the isle of Skye was "for the most part black;" and the natives of Jura were "generally black of complexion," and of Arran, "generally brown, and some of a black complexion." The inhabitants of the Isle Gigay were "fair or brown in complexion." The American Indian -- commonly called the Red Man -- varies from copper brown to almost black, and, of course, almost white in some tribes.

And the famous literary companions Johnson and Boswell several times took notice of the swarthy color of some of the natives in the north and west of Scotland (Croker's "Boswell", 1848, pp. 309-310, 316, 352). "There was great diversity in the faces of the circle around us," wrote Boswell; "some were as black and wild in their appearance as any American savages whatever." "Our boatmen were rude singers, and seemed so like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was necessary to give one an impression of being upon an American river." A writer at the beginning of the nineteenth century characterized the people of Harris: "In general the natives are of small stature .... the cheek bones are rather prominent. The complexion is of all tints. Many individuals are as dark as mulattoes, while others are nearly as fair as Danes" ("Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal", No. vii, pp. 142, 143).

In "Pennant's Second Tour", 1772, is a line drawing of the wigwams of the half-breed natives of the Scottish Island of Jura. Here are natives, like American Indians, living in the remote islands of Europe, whose last remnants died out as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century.

AMERICAN INDIAN TRADITION

The common idea that American Indians had no means of preserving their history is a fiction based on the assumption that all Indians were on the same level of culture. Wild, rude tribes there were. But civilized nations existed too. They carefully preserved, among other things, the history of their journeys, and the duration of their habitation in the New World. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the New World they were amazed to find the Maya and Aztecs using bark paper to preserve history and daily records. It was obtained from the FICUS, a tree related to the mulberry. Bark was peeled off, beaten with a rubber mallet, and folded into sheets to make books. In Moctezuma's palace Bernal Diaz followed an "accountant" who showed him "all the revenue that was brought ... (and recorded) in his books which were made of paper which they call "amatl", and he had a great house full of these books" (pages 184-185 of "The Ancient Sun Kingdoms of the Americas", by von Hagen). Only a few escaped the book burning of the Spanish zealots, who sought to wipe out all vestiges of the previous culture and the lineage of their royal houses.

Some rare codices have been preserved, however. One is the "Popol Vuh", a sacred book of the ancient Quiche Maya. In it are recorded the migrations and wanderings of their ancestors. It traces their origin eastward across the Atlantic Ocean to the Old World. Other Indians had similar origins of having to cross a great body of water from the northeast to reach their present land. (Later migrations, once they had arrived from the east, could take any direction.)

The writer of the Popul Vuh declared: "They also multiplied there in the East .... All lived together, they existed in great numbers and walked there in the East .... There they were then, in great numbers, the black man and the white man, many of many classes, men of many tongues .... The speech of all was the same. They did not invoke wood nor stone, and they remembered the word of the Creator and the Maker The Maya record continues: "... they came from the East ... they left there, from that great distance .... they crossed the sea" (pp. 181, 183). When they sought to establish their kingdom "they decided to go to the East .... It had been a long time since their fathers had died East, there whence came our fathers.' Certainly they crossed the sea when they came there to the East, when they went to receive the investiture of the kingdom" (pp. 206-207).

To what line of great kings in the east were these Quiche Maya journeying? To the successors of the great ruler who conducted them, about 1000 B.C., to the Usumacinta River in Mexico.

ENTER VOTAN

The Mayas claim that their kingdom was founded by a great eastern ruler named Votan or Oden or Dan by various tribes. He was a white man who came by sea from the east and settled them in their new land. The time of their migration, according to Ordonez, was ten centuries before the present era. This Votan -- who was also worshipped as a god -- was famous for having himself journeyed to a land where a great temple was being built.

Do we have a king in Europe, living at the time Solomon's temple was being built (around 1000 B.C.), who had dominion over the seas, who was worshipped as a god, and whose name sounded like Votan? Indeed -- Woden or Odin, king of Denmark from 1040-999. He was worshipped later as a great god. Scandinavian literature is replete with accounts of his distant journeys which took him away from his homeland for many months, sometimes years.

Just as king Odin or Danus gave his name to Denmark -- Danmark -- so Odin gave his name to the "forest of Dan" in the land of the Quiche Indians. (See pages 549 and 163 of volume V, "Native Races of the Pacific States", by Hubert H. Bancroft.) "Dan ... founded a monarchy on the Guatemalan plateau" (Bancroft, vol. I, p. 789). His capital, built for the Indians and their white suzerains, was named Amag-Dan.

Here we have the records of Danish kings, as early as 1000 years before the birth of Christ, sailing to the New World and planting colonies of Red Men from Europe in the Yucatan and Guatemalan highlands. Is it any wonder that it was the Danes, of all nations of Europe, who continued to communicate with the New World in the days of Eric the Red? It was the king of Denmark who ruled over Iceland in the days of Christopher Columbus. Before Columbus awakened the sleepy Mediterranean world by his important journey across the Atlantic, he first sailed to Iceland where he obtained information for his fateful voyage.

And is it not significant that it was an Icelandic nobleman, Eric Gnupson, who was consecrated by Pope Pascal II as Bishop of Greenland and the neighboring regions ("regionumque finitimarum") in 1112? (See "Conquest by Man", Paul Herrmann, p. 287.)

EARLY TIME OF MIGRATION

Tradition universally assigns white leadership to every major recorded historic migration of the American Indian from far to the northeast. The later history of Mexico commences with the establishment of a monarchy by the Toltecs of Mexico. The Toltecs were of white descent. They led and ruled over the Indians and spoke their languages. Charnay wrote in the "North American Review", October 1881, "Physically Veytia describes the Toltec as a man of tall stature, white, and bearded." A carved head of a "noble Aztec," on display in the National Museum, may be seen on plate 40 in George C. Vaillant's "Aztecs of Mexico". The noble Aztec was not an Indian at all, but a Norseman!

Little wonder that wherever the Spanish journeyed they found the ruling classes much lighter than the people over whom they ruled. On occasion the conquistadors thought their women as fair or fairer than their Spanish women.

"The Annals of the Cakchiquels -- Lords of Totonicapan" contains direct reference to the racial descent of the nobles who led and governed the natives to the New World.

"These, then, were the three nations of the Quiches, and they came from where the sun rises, descendants of Israel, of the same language and the same customs .... When they arrived at the edge of the sea, Balam-qitze (a native title for one in a religious office) touched it with his staff and at once a path opened, which then closed up again, for thus the great God wished it to be done, because they were the sons of Abraham and Jacob. So it was that those three nations (the "mixed multitude" of Exodus 12:38) passed through, and with them thirteen others called Vukamag" -- meaning the 13 tribes. Israel had altogether 13 tribes including Levi.

"We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us, who came from the other part of the sea, who came from Civan-Tulan, bordering on Babylonia" page 170. Page 169 says they ".... came from the other part of the ocean, from where the sun rises." (Translated by Delia Goetz; published by University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.)

Was the mysterious Civan-Tulan -- meaning in Indian dialects a place of caves or ravines -- the region of Petra, where Moses led the Children of Israel? Petra is famous for its caves. Canaanite Hivites, mixed with Egyptian stock, dwelt at Petra, or Mt. Seir, at the time of the Exodus (Genesis 36:2, 20, 24). They lived at peace with the Hebrews.

This settlement of Hivites was a region dominated by Midian. A high priest who visited the land of Midian and Moab in Moses' day was named Balaam -- almost the exact spelling in the Quiche-Maya title Balam used for priests!

The people led by Odin or Votan across the Atlantic to the New World were not exclusively the sons of Tiras from Thrace; some tribes were called Chivim, reports Ordonez the early Spanish writer. It is the very Hebrew spelling used for the English word Hivites, some of whom once lived in Mt. Seir, the land of caves, near Babylonia! So the Mexican Indians were a mixed people.

CHRONOLOGY OF MEXICO

No continuous history of the Quiche-Maya civilization is extant. We have now to turn to the Valley of Mexico for direct and surprising connection with the movement of events in Scotland where dwelt the Picts and the Maiatai (Greek for Maia folk). From Scottish history, covered in the previous chapter and in the first volume of the Compendium, it can be established that major migrations occurred in the years 376 -- when the Scots and allies were driven out and the Picts miserably oppressed -- and in 503 -- when the Scots from Ireland drove out most of the remaining wild Picts or painted men. Where did these folk flee to? Can we establish a direct connection between these events in Pictland with the history of migration to the Valley of Mexico of the Toltecs and others in the New World?

Indeed we can.

The nation of the Scots was utterly driven out by the Romans in the year 376. The Cruithne and Picts, who remained in the land as Roman allies, were soon miserably oppressed. Rebellion broke out. The Romans dealt severely with the fleeing rebels. The Cruithne and Picts besought and obtained Scottish help to drive out the Romans and their British allies.

Now compare this with the migration of the Toltecs and their white chieftains to Mexico. The historian of the Toltecs was Ixtlilxochitl.

He reports several migrations over the centuries. But the one he takes special note of -- for its chronological import -- commenced in 387.

(See Bancroft's "Native Races of the Pacific States", Vol. 5, pp. 209,

214.) The events were these -- a rebellion broke out that led to a protracted struggle for eight years. The rebels were finally forced to flee in 384 for protection. After remaining 3 years (to 387) they continued their lengthy migration. It was now 11 years after the initial rebellion. Eleven years before 387 is 376 -- the very year the Romans drove out the Scots and suppressed the Painted Red Men of Pictland! Is this mere coincidence? Their migration took them over water and land till they reached Jalisco in Mexico. To do so they must have landed in the traditional area of the Usumacinta River, crossed the isthmus, and coasted to Jalisco on the southern extremity of the Gulf of California. After wandering many years they settled in Tulancingo. "The third year of their stay in Tulancingo completed ...

one hundred and four years since the departure from the country," records Bancroft from Ixtlilxochitl (vol. v, p. 213). (The 104 years compose two Indian calendar cycles of 52 years each.) It was now 488.

At Tulancingo they remained another 15 years -- to 503. In 503 they migrated to the Valley of Mexico to the region of Lake Texcoco.

What caused them to migrate in 503? Is this a significant date in Scottish history? Indeed. That was the year the Scots from Ireland finally settled in Scotland and drove the wild Pictish tribes out of the country.

Strengthened by a new influx of migrants, the Toltecs journeyed (in 503) to the already-settled shores of the lake on which Mexico City now stands. There, at Tullan, for six years the Toltecs lived under a theocratic republic, each chief directing the movement of his band in war and directing their needs in times of peace. "But in the seventh year," records Bancroft, "after their arrival in Tollan, when the republic was yet in a state of peace and prosperity, undisturbed by foreign foes, the chiefs convened an assembly of the heads of families and the leading men. The object of the meeting was to effect a change in the form of their government, and to establish a monarchy." It was agreed to accept, as king, a son of a neighboring Chichimec king to be supreme ruler. "Immediately after the accession of the young monarch" in 510, "a law was established by him and his counsellors to the effect that no king should reign more than fifty-two years, but at the expiration of this term should abdicate in favor of his eldest son, whom he might, however, still serve as adviser. Should the king die before the allotted time had elapsed, it was provided that the state should be ruled during the unexpired term by magistrates chosen by the people" (pp. 244, 246).

This custom continued firmly established among the Toltecs at Tullan for many years. Later the practice was discontinued, though the Mexican Indians still continued to count time by 52 year cycles. The history of the American Indian from 510 to the coming of the Spanish has been carefully preserved by Ixtlilxochitl and in the Annals of Cuauhtitlan.

Modern writers in previous decades often carelessly discounted the value of these Indian records. But archaeology is forcing a renewed respect for the history of the New World as preserved by the native writers during the earliest days of the Spanish colonial period. The most readily accessible -- and one of the best works -- on early Mexico is -- "Aztecs of Mexico", by G. C. Valliant, revised by Suzannah B. Valliant. Another useful source is Stokvis' "Manuel".

THE HISTORY OF TOLTECS AT TULLAN

The history of Tullan is the history of the Mayapan culture of Mexico. Earlier cultures are commonly found, but no continuous history exists before 510. The Toltecs were not the carriers of the culture of Teotihuacan, as is often stated by archaeologists (see p. 6 of Penguin edition of "The Aztecs of Mexico" by Valliant). The following is a summary of the history of Tullan (or Tula), restored in accordance with the earliest extant Aztec and Toltec records. Bancroft's "Native Races of the Pacific States" may be consulted for the full story of events. It is a treasure-house of information.

(Note that the "x" in Aztec names is pronounced as "sh.")

Toltec Kings of Tulan Lengths of Reign Dates according to Ixtlilxochitl Period of the Tullan 7 503-510 Republic under chieftains

 Chalchiuhtlanetzin 52 510-562 Ixtlilcuechahauac 52 562-614 Huetzin I 52 614-666 Totepeuh I 52 666-718 Nacoxoc 52 718-770 Mitl-Tlacomihua 59 770-829 Queen Xihuiquenitzin 4 829-833 Izaccaltzin 52 833-885 Topiltzin I 74 885-959 

A struggle with Chichimecs occurred during the reign of Topiltzin. Topiltzin was forced to flee leaving authority in the hands of the royal family of Ihuitimal. The confused conditions are reflected in the joint rulership presented in the next short succeeding chart. The parallel reigns also indicate that Toltec leadership was divided among powerful city-state princes in the growing Toltec Empire which spread itself in the Valley of Mexico.

Toltec Kings Lengths of Reign Dates Mixcoatl Mazatin 65 804-869 Texcaltepocatl Huetzin 28 869-897 Ihuitimal 28 897-925 (or 36) (887-923)

Topiltzin I 22 925-947 (or 24) (923-947)

The above chart indicates Ihuitimal succeeded his father in 897, but, according to the Annals of Cuauhtitlan, he replaced the fleeing Topiltzin in 887. Topiltzin returned in 923. Ihuitimal ended his reign two years later. Though Topiltzin continued on the throne to 959 (see first chart), he was succeeded in 947 as follows.

Kings of Tullan Lengths of Reign Dates according to the Annals of Cuahtitlan Matlacxochitl 36 947- 983 Nauhyotzin I 14 983- 997 Queen Xiuhtlaltzin 4 997-1001 Matlaccoatzin 24 1001-1025 (or 28)

(997-1025)

Tlilcoatzin 21 1025-1046 Huemac 75 1046-1121 Huemac is another name of Quetzalcoatl (Bancroft Vol. III, pp.

267, 283-4). He was a ramous white man who came from the east with a religion that banned human sacrifice and used the symbol of the cross.

The name Quetzalcoatl, was originally that of an early Aztec god.

It was applied by Aztecs to any great priest who claimed to represent the deity. Huemac Quetzalcoatl disappeared and returned on several occasions during his 75 years, leaving the supreme government, in his absence, to contemporaries of the royal house. This white priest became famous over much of the New World. Who was he? And what religion was he bringing?

The answer is found by the date of his death 1121. Was there a famous white priest, with jurisdiction over areas of the Western Hemisphere who died in 1121?

Yes! Icelandic Bishop Eric Gnupson, whose domain included the New World! He died in 1121, the same year that Quetzalcoatl did. At his death in 1121 the Icelandic Thing (Parliament) met to request the pope that a new bishop be appointed (Conquest by Man, by Herrmann, pp. 286 -287) . The religion of Quetzalcoatl was Roman Catholicism. When the Spanish missionaries later came to the Indians they were amazed to find so many parallels to the Catholic religion -- holy water, nuns, rosaries, the cross, penances and other traditions!

Contemporary with Huemac Quetzalcoatl were the following Tullan rulers: Huemac II Atecpanecatl 35 1046-1081 Topiltzin Acxitl 33 1081-1114 Matlacxochitl Huemac III 2 1114-1116 Veytia gives 1116 as the date of the final overthrow of Tullan at the coming of the Aztecs (Hist. Ant. Mej., bk. 1, pp. 287-304. ) See also Bancroft, vol. 5., p. 325.

THE CITY-STATE OF CULHUACAN

A major expansion of the Toltecs occurred at the close of the end of the fourth 52 year cycle -- in 718. In that year a branch of the royal lineage founded Culhuacan. It suffered a major reverse in the year 1063 at the hands of the Chichimecs who established a new dynasty in Texcoco. The following chart covers the kings of Culhuacan until that defeat.

Kings of Culhuacan Lengths of Reign Dates Nauhyotl I 50 718- 768 Mixcohuatl Camaxtli 78 768- 846 Totepueh I Nonohyatcatl I Yohuallatonac I 59 846- 905 Quetzallacxoyatl 49 905- 954 Chalchiuh-Tlatonac I 32 954- 986 Totepeuh II 41 986-1027 Nauhyotl II 36 1027-1063 For five years (1063-1068) the local government of Culhuacan was in the hands of a Toltec noble Xiuhtemoc, to whom the late king's children were confided. The year after the defeat, a young son of the king was placed on the throne under the tutelage of Xiuhtemoc.

Kings of Culhuacan Lengths of Reign Dates Nauhyotl III 60 1064-1124 Cuanhtexpetlatzin 57 1124-1181 Huetzin 21 1181-1202 Nonoalcatl 21 1202-1223 Achitometl 14 1223-1237 Cuauhtonal 14 1237-1251

NEW LINEAGE BEGINS

Mazatzin 23 1251-1274 Quetzaltzin 13 1274-1287 Chalchiuhtlatonac II 17 1287-1304 Cuauhtlix 7 1304-1311 Yohuallatonac 10 1311-1321 Tziuhtecatzin 13 1321-1334 Xihuitlemoc 18 1334-1352 Coxcox 24 1352-1376 Acamapichtli 12 1376-1388 Achitometl 12 1388-1400 Nauhyotl 13 1400-1413 The central government in the Valley of Mexico now passed into the hands of the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan.

Prior to the Aztec dominion, the Chichimecs at Texcoco were a dominant Indian tribe. Their power commenced with the defeat of Tullan in 1063.

THE CHICHIMECS AT TEXCOCO

Chichimec Kings of Lengths of Reign Dates Texcoco Xolotl 17 1063-1180 After the era of Xolotl a new lineage begins. Nopaltzin 31 1180-1211 Tlotzin Pochotl 35 1211-1246 Quinantzin Tlaltecatzin 59 1246-1305 Techotlala 52 1305-1357 Istlilxochitl 61 1357-1418 (For this king Valliant has mistakenly dropped out an entire cycle of 52 years in his reign.)

Nezahualcoyotl 54 1418-1472 Nezahualpilli 44 1472-1516 Cacama 3 1516-1519 Spanish land in Vera Cruz, native rulers to 1550 continued with limited authority. During part of the reign of Istlilxochitl, two tyrants of Tepanec dominated the country. They are below.

Tepanec Tyrants at Lengths of Reign Dates Azcapotzalco Tezozomoc 84 1343-1427 Maxtla 2 1427-1429

THE AZTECS

The Mexican Indians were, at the coming of the Spanish, under the Aztec sway. Many tribes readily accepted Spanish assistance to aid them in the overthrow of their oppressive rulers. They had yet to learn that new oppressors were coming in the guise of deliverers. The following outline illustrates the gradual rise to power of the Aztecs. The story of the final overthrow of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan is so generally narrated as to need no repetition here. The city was established under Tezcuecuex in 1202 at the end of the reign of Huetzin of Culhuacan.

Aztecs of Tenochtitlan Lengths of Reign Dates Tezcuecuex 33 1202-1235 Huitzilhuitl, called Mexi, 63 1235-1298 after whom Mexico receives its name.

Culhuacan seized Tenochtitlan. The city again became independent under Tenoch in 1325.

Tenoch, after whom the city of 11 1325-1336 Tenochtitlan was named.

Tlacotin 1 1336-1337 Teuhtlehuac 12 1337-1349

LINEAGE BEGINS:

Queen Ilancueitl 34 1349-1383 Acamapichtli, reigns 8 years 20 1375-1395 contemporary with previous queen. Huitzilhuitl II 19 1395-1414 Chimalpopoca 14 1414-1428 Itzcoatl 12 1428-1440 Montezuma I 29 1440-1469 Azayacatl 12 1469-1481 Tizoc 5 1481-1486 Ahuitzetl 17 1486-1503 Montezuma II, in his reign 17 1503-1520 the Spanish arrived.

Cuitlahuac 4 months 1520 (murdered on way to Honduras)

The history of the Peruvian civilization must wait until Spanish history is presented.

Other cities of lesser import have left us a record but those present here give the chronological outline from which a valid study of Mexican history can begin.

CHAPTER VIII -- THE HISTORY OF SPAIN

Who would guess today, from reading Spanish history, that Spain was, in Old Testament times, one of the most important countries in the world? That famous Biblical characters as Togarmah and Seir the Horite and Tarshish made their appearance in this fabulous land? Today the early history of Spain is virtually unknown. Scholars treat it in much the same fashion as the history of every other nation in Europe. Her past -- before Roman rule -- is made to appear a chronological blank. What little is written before that time mainly emphasizes broken pottery and similar artifacts.

The real history is vitally interesting. It holds the key to the settlement of the Peruvian Indian in Latin America. Spain was also the link between Palestine and Ireland. Whoever controlled Spain was in a position to dominate the Western Mediterranean.

ONLY RECENTLY SUPPRESSED

Until very recent times Spanish writers took pride in presenting their national history. They were not ashamed of it. Today, in the face of "higher criticism," Spanish scholars have suppressed the truth of her beginnings. What once was recognized to be fact is now relegated to the limbo of myth for no other reason than early Spanish history reads very much like the Bible!

Early Spanish history does not begin in Spain. It begins far to the east -- in the lands bordering the ancient Assyrian Empire.

Similarly, the history of the Hebrews of the Bible does not begin with Palestine, but with the land of the Chaldeans in Mesopotamia. In its earliest period the history of the Iberian Peninsula is not primarily the story of the Spanish people at all. It is the history of other people who migrated through that land, or temporarily dominated it.

Few books in English preserve the history we are now entering upon. The two works most readily available in libraries are Anderson's "Royal Genealogies" and the 20 volume "Universal History", published in 1748. The Spanish material is contained in volume xviii.

Our story opens in Asia Minor, in the region of the city of Tarsus. Paul the apostle was born here. Tarsus was a port first settled by the children of Tarshish. From Tarsus in Cilicia they gradually migrated into Spain, where they founded the city of Tartessus. The earliest homeland of the children of Tarshish in Asia Minor was originally ruled over by Tubal, son of Japheth. Spanish history begins with his government at Babel.

The land about Tarsus in Asia Minor long bore the name of Tubal.

The Assyrians, in their cuneiform documents, referred to it as Tabal.

It extended from the area of what is eastern Turkey today into the Caucasus to the Russian plains.

The most valuable area in the ancient land of Tabal was the excellent farming and trading region of Iberia in the Caucasus -- the modern Georgia. From this vast area, the descendants of Tubal migrated into the Russian steppes. But their subjects, the children of Tarshish, migrated westward toward Spain. Early Spanish history is in a sense the story of the Spanish people, but the record of their foreign rulers.

The following outline summarizes the important events preserved of the early history of the Spanish people beginning from the Tower of Babel.

EARLIEST KINGS OVER THE SPANISH

Name of Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates Tubal 156 2254-2098 Grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:2). Came to power at Babel. Ruled over territory in eastern Asia Minor (Turkey)

where Tarshish, the father of the Spaniards, originally settled.

Iberus, a son of Tubal 37 2098-2061 He gave his name to the entire peninsula, which is still known as the Iberian Peninsula. Later his descendants migrated from Spain to Iberia in the Caucasus.

Eubalda (or Idubeda) 64 2061-1997 Son of Iberus, last of the line of Tubal to rule over the children of Tarshish.

Brigus 52 1997-1945 Son of Mash, the son of Aram (Gen. 10:23). Previously settled a colony in Eastern Europe under Asshur; now leads a colony to Spain by sea. An Aramaic large nosed element may be seen in the Spanish population to this day.

The ancient city of Damascus, Syria, was named after his father Mash.

Brigus (Brigo) organized his people into pastoral units (whence our "brigades"), which multiplied so rapidly that colonies were forced to leave Spain in search of new homes. Some of his children from Europe early carried his name into Phrygia (Asia Minor). There the family became associated with Meshech, brother of Tubal.

Brigo's father, Mash, became known by the name Meshech (I Chr. 1:17).

Brigo's family in Spain soon became associated with the children of Togarmah, who next entered Spain.

Tagus Ormah 30 1945-1915 The Togarmah, son of Gomer, of the Bible (Gen. 10:2).

Late Latin writers split his name into two syllables, and added Latin "-us" ending.

Togarmah invaded Italy one year after his domination of Spain. Both were yet sparcely populated lands and afforded new, hospitable areas. During his reign he sent many bands to seek habitations elsewhere, ultimately passing eastward into the far northern reaches of Asia (Ezekiel 38:6).

The Tagus River of Southern Spain was named for him.

Bet(us), or Boetus, 32 1915-1883 (or 31) (1915-1884) son of Togarmah; Bet(us) gave his name to the Bet(us) river (now called Guadalquivir).

In his day the children of Tarshish, known as Turditanians, in Spanish histories, settled the southwestern part of Spain. Boetus encouraged the development of learning.

The children of Betus were soon forced to migrate out of Europe, with the rest of the family of Togarmah, and at length settled in Tibet -- which means the plateau of Bet! The family of Togarmah was superseded by an invasion from the south.

INVASION FROM AFRICA

Having become again a civilized land and wealthy due to changes in climate and the presence of many gold mines, Spain aroused the cupidity of Egyptian and other North African nations. Gerion or Deabus, a Lybian, with many men and ships invaded and conquered Spain and forced the Spaniards to dig gold for their African overlords. African cultural elements were introduced. Many Spanish slaves died from overwork under this tyranny. The history of this period is as follows: Rulers of Spain Lengths of Reign Dates (continued)

Gerion, the giant 34 1883-1849 (or 35) (1884-1849)

Gerion was the seventh generation from Ham. He descended through Cush, Saba (the Seba of Gen. 10:7), Gog, Triton, Ammon and Hiarba (compare the last name with the Biblical "Arba" of Joshua 15:13, who was the father of the Anakim glants).

The Lomnini 42 1849-1807 The Lomnini were three giant sons of Gerion. They were allowed to continue to rule in the land after an invasion in 1849 by an Egyptian army under Osyris Denis (Dionysius in Greek).

Osyris slew Gerion in 1849, upon which part of his tribe took to ship and sailed to the New World. A tradition found among the Toltecs of Mexico and preserved by Ixtlilxochitl declares there once were giants in their land.

Even the date of the arrival of these giants has been preserved by the Toltec historian. It was 520 years after the flood. (Bancroft "Native Races of the Pacific States", vol. V, p. 209. ) The year of the flood was 2370-2369. And 520 years AFTER the flood -- that is, after 2369 -- is 1849, the very year a great battle was fought in Spain during which Gerion was slain and many of the giants were expelled.

Later Indian tradition records the perishing of these giants in the New World in a struggle with the Indians.

One of the Lomnini in Spain, meanwhile, was given to wife a sister of Osyris. A son of the union, Norac, settled Sardinia and built the city of Norca. Sardinia is famous for traditionally being inhabited by giants who left the megalithic remains and giant tombs. Early British tradition also assigns to swarthy giants the building of many of the megalithic monuments or henges.

To avenge the death of their father, the three Lomnini brothers conspired with Typhon, brother of Osyris. Typhon assassinated his brother Osyris.

After the death of Osyris, Hercules appears on the scene. Rather than drench the whole land in a bloodbath, he challenged the three sons of Gerion to personal combat -- three against one -- and slew them all.

Hercules then turned the government of southern Spain over to Hispal, his son and one of his generals, and departed with the bulk of his army to Italy.

Who were Osyris, Typhon and Heracles of Spanish, Italian and North African tradition?

Note the time setting. These events are long after the death of Nimrod (2167) or of Miebis (2037), who was the second Osiris. The dates of these events correspond to the latter half of Dynasty II in Egypt.

It is the period of the patriarch Jacob. The Hercules of these traditions has already been proved to be Seir the Horite. In Spanish history Hercules is often referred to as "Oron," meaning the Horite. He was a king of Egypt -- a descendant of Horus. He slew the giant Antaeus, another king of Egypt, records Josephus the Jewish historian.

Who are all these supposedly mythological rulers?

The surprising answer is that they have all been listed in Volume I -- they are kings of the second half of Dynasty II of Egypt. Notice the parallels.

Antaeus -- an opponent of Osiris -- was a man of giant stature. So was Sesochris (Neferkaseker), who reigned 1815-1767. Typhon, the slayer of Osiris, was pictured as a destroyer in the Greek traditions of this period. King Chaires (Aka) bore the title "Destroyer." His reign began also in 1815. Following a war in Egypt against the faction of Osiris III, he temporarily received the "united kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt and the seal of the accursed one" -- Osiris.

Then who was Osiris III -- the Osiris Dionysius of Spanish history? None other than king Sendi (the Sethenes of Manetho). His body, according to the tradition, was cast into the Nile. Reports Weigall of him: "No trace of the king's tomb has been found; and ... he seems to have met with disaster at the end" ("The History of the Pharaoh's", page 136).

And now notice Hercules in this same dynasty. Hercules -- the Seir the Horite of Scripture -- was renowned for having subdued Libya, and the vast territories that lie west of Egypt. He was called Heracles Libycus. Did one of the Pharaoh's of this same period conquer Libya?

Certainly -- Necherophes. Manetho records of him: "In his reign Libya revolted, but, on account of an unexpected increase of the moon, they submitted through fear." Now to continue with the outline of Spanish history. Hercules -- Seir the Horite -- put Hispal his son over the country. He could be none other than Shobal of Genesis 36:20. It is common for a silent "h" to appear before Spanish names. The successor to Hispal or Shobal was Hispan, a grandson of Hercules.

Is there a grandson of Seir the Horite by that name? See the name in Genesis 36:26 -- Eshban! He was a son of Dishon, another son of Seir. Now it ought to be plain why Scripture records the genealogy of this famous man. Without it, there would be no means of understanding who the rulers of these times were. When we come to Italian history, we shall see how they link up with the family of Jacob. Meantime, the history of Spain in chart form is presented below.

Hispal, son of Hercules. 17 1807-1790 He built the city Hispalis, later known as Sepila, now Seville.

Hispanus, grandson of Heracles. 32 1790-1758 Gave his name to Hispania (Spain) in consequence of extending his rule (during his first year 1790-1789)

into central and northern regions of the peninsula previously settled only by wild tribes. He built towers to control the region of Gallicia in Spain.

Once again Spanish history has a bearing on the New World. The attack by Hispanus on these rude tribes in the northern regions on the shores of the Bay of Biscay is recorded in Toltec history.

Ixtlilxochitl records that a second invasion from the east occurred 2236 years after the creation of man (Bancroft, vol. v, p. 209). Notice how this figure corresponds with both the Bible and Spanish history.

At the death of Hispanus, Hercules, that is, Seir the Horite, reappears in Spain and Western Europe in his old age.

Hercules 19 1758-1739 Note that these dates correspond exactly with those of his rule in Britain and Gaul. It is significant that Hercules' family should appear so prominently in Western Europe. They must already have been driven out of Mt. Seir by Esau. Hercules left no heir to the Spanish throne He was succeeded by one of his generals.

ABRAHAM'S CHILDREN

Hesperus 11 1739-1728 Spanish records declare Hesperus to be one of the two captains (not his sons) who accompanied Hercules in his original exploits into Spain. He gave his name Hesperus to Spain and Italy which in early times were called Hesperia Minor and Hesperia Major respectively.

He was driven out of Spain into Italy by his brother, who succeeded him.

Atlas 12 1728-1716 (10) (1728-1718) Sometimes called Italus. A brother of Hesperus, the other captain of Hercules, a famous astronomer; dethroned and exiled Hesperus.

Josephus, the Jewish historian, also wrote about these two famous captains of Hercules in "Antiquities", I, xv. Here are his words: "Abraham after this married Keturah" -- Genesis 25, "by whom six sons were born to him ..." Then Josephus names Midian, a son of Abraham, who begat "Ephas and Ophren," called Ephah and Epher in the Bible. "It is related of this Ophren, that he made war against Libya, and took it; and that his grandchildren, when they inhabited it, called it (from his name) Africa; and indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: ' ... from the other two (Apher and Japhran) the country of Africa took its name; because these men were auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antaeus.' " Josephus understood that the two famous captains of Hercules were the grandsons of Abraham.

Hesperus, who was later exiled in a family quarrel, was the Biblical Ephah. Atlas, the strong man and astronomer, was Epher. It is his line that continued to control the western Mediterranean for several generations.

The late Greek writers at times confused this Atlas, who was also known from Italian history as Atlas Italus Kitim (because he ruled the land of Kittim), with another Atlas. That other Atlas was surnamed Maurus and was the descendant, in Greek tradition, of Japetus and Asia.

Japetus or Iapetus was the Japheth of the Bible. Atlas Maurus is associated with Spain and North Africa because his people were migrating from the borders of Asia westward to the New World. The only son of Japheth whose children left Western Asia and Eastern Europe was Tiras. Atlas Italus Kitim was succeeded by a son -- Oris or Sicorus, son of Atlas 44 1716-1672 (or 45) (1718-1673)

Anus or Sicanus, son of Sicorus 31 1672-1641 (or 32) (1673-1641) Gave his name to people whom he led through Italy to Sicily. From these Sicani the island of Sicily was anciently called Sicania.

Sicileus or Siculus, son of 45 1641-1596 Sicorus (or 44) (1641-1597) Crossed into Italy. He changed the name of Sicania to Sicilia.

Lusus, son of Siculus 29 1596-1567 (or 60) (1567-1507) He gave his name to Lusitania (now Portugal)

Ulus or Siculus, son of Lusus 64 1567-1503 (or 60) (1567-1507) He was also known as Neptune. He had great fleets of ships.

Ulus again led an army into Sicily to aid the colonists whose presence there was still being opposed. At the close of his reign, in 1503, a city was founded on the coast of Spain by refugees from Greece. The year 1503 is the date of a great devastation in Thessaly, the flood of Deucalion, in which many perished. In this period -- the "neolithic" -- the inhabitants of Thessaly were culturally like Mexican Indians ("The Origins of Greek Civilization", C. G. Starr, p. 17, footnote) Again notice the harmony of these records.

CHAOS IN SPAIN

Testa 70 1503-1433 A descendant of Triton (thus related to Gerion), seized southwestern Spain and called himself king of Spain. Romus, son of Testa 33 1433-1400 In his third year "Liber Pater," or Bacchus (Iacchus), reduced Spain to his sway. He was from the East. His title belonged to Hesus the Mighty of Celtic tradition. Hesus was Joshua (Jesus in Greek). He pursued the Canaanites and drove them out of Western Europe Palatuus, son of Romus 19 1400-1381 Cacus Licinius 36 1381-1345 A native prince who rebelled and deposed Palatuus in a year-long struggle.

Palatuus restored 6 1345-1339 In his days Erithrus, king (or 15) (1345-1330)

of Tyre, came to Spain.

Erithree, or Erithrus, king 66 1339-1273 of Tyre Corgoras Mellicola, son of 75 1273-1198 Erithree He divided Spain into several provinces.

Hebides or Habis, grandson 49 1198-1149 of Gorgoras (or 64) (1198-1134)

Following the recapture of Troy in 1149 many groups of people,

conquered as well as conquerors, sought new homes. As a result several areas of western and northern Spain were populated. The Lydians achieved dominance after 1149 over all the Mediterranean region, heading the list of Thalassocracies or Sea Powers. Their dominion in Spain began in 1149. Each of the Sea Powers in turn dominated Spain until Nebuchadnezzar the Great of Babylon made Spain a part or the Chaldean Empire for 9 years. After that, the Spaniards of Gades invited the Carthaginians to come and rule over them. The Carthaginians remained until expelled by the expanding Roman Empire.

TIME OF THE SEA POWERS

As ancient Troy was the key to control of the Eastern Mediterranean, so Spain was to the Western Mediterranean. There are noticeable variations between the two regions that are worth noting. In volume I of the Compendium, in the chapter on Greek history, the list for the Eastern Mediterranean appears. Below is the Spanish evidence for the West, including the Atlantic littoral.

 Sea Powers for Western Duration Dates Mediterranean to 530 Lydians 48 1149-1101 ------------------------------ Thracians 86 970-884 Rhodians 20 884-864 Phrygians 26 864-838 Cyprians 39 838-799 Phoenicians 41 799-758 Egyptians 35 758-723 Milesians 29 723-694 Carians 48 694-646 Lesbians 68 646-578 Phocaeians 48 578-530 

There is a gap deliberately inserted in this list. It is similar to attempts elsewhere to expurgate any record of the Pelasgians, who were the Hebrews of the Kingdom of Israel. The missing item should be Pelasgians 131 1101-970 This list indicates that the Hebrews became dominant in Spain at the time the Lydians resettled in the Grecian world in 1101.

The 9 years of Nebuchadnezzar's dominion began in 578 and lasted until 569, the year his insanity commenced. He gained dominion over the Mediterranean through the Phocaeian fleets. Nebuchadnezzar established, as his representative in Spain a long-lived hero named Aganthonius who ruled 80 years (578-498) to the coming of the Carthaginians in 498.

With this, the early history of the Spanish is restored. Its important connection with Biblical and secular history is obvious -- and especially so when one remembers that Spanish historians also mention the 26 years' drought in Spain referred to in Irish Annals.

This was the famine in David's time, and precipitated the establishment of the Hebrew throne in Ireland.

CHAPTER IX -- ITALY, HOME OF PAGAN RELIGION

Nearly everyone has heard of the ancient pagan Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. But almost no one knows that they were originally great rulers of Italy. The whole modern Christian world has been influenced by Roman Catholicism. The story in pre-Roman times was the same. Instead of paganism spreading to Rome from Greece, it really spread from Italy to Greece.

It was the vogue of the last century to ridicule the myths of Rome and of Greece. The gods and goddesses were regarded as mere human inventions -- rigments of the superstitious madness of the ancients. To admit that they were originally flesh-and-blood human beings would have been tantamount to admitting the reality of the Bible. For several of the heroes-made-god of ancient Italy are characters of the Bible.

ITALY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD

There is a very special reason that Italy became the home of religious apostasy in the West. The pagan mystery religions had a very special problem confronting them in Italy. They had to counter the teachings of Noah! Yes, Noah appears as a ruler in the early history of Italy! Noah lived both sides of the Flood. He knew what life meant. Apart from him the whole human family would have been wiped from off the face of the earth. The world's religious leaders knew that if they were to succeed they must, in some way, counterfeit, in Italy, the teachings of Noah -- just as later they were to counterfeit the teachings of Christ. The parallel is exact.

To counterfeit Christ, they took Christ's name and labeled their superstition "Christian." They began to worship Christ. "This people honoreth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. But in vain worship they me, teaching for doctrines commands of men" (Mark 7:6-7).

To subdue the doctrines Noah preached, they made a pretense of following him -- claiming they were doing what he commanded them, claiming to do it by his authority. And when Noah died they began to worship him! They called him, in their mysteries, Janus -- the one who could look into both worlds because he experienced the worlds on either side of the Flood.

WHAT ITALIAN HISTORY REVEALS The history of Italy was preserved down to Roman times. Not until the Middle Ages was it allowed to die a natural death. What could not be disproved was left undiscussed. The scholarly world soon forgot the records in its possession. Those who did take note of them began labeling them as recent inventions -- just as they did the history of every other nation. Now let us open the pages of Italian history and see what really occurred in ancient Italy.

The history of Italy opens -- as might be expected -- with human government beginning at the Tower of Babel. Italian history begins immediately after the Flood -- with the land without inhabitants for 108 years. The first family to settle in Italy, according to ancient history, was Gomer. But why should this be so unusual, when one considers the contemporary history of Spain?

Gomer's children generally passed eastward out of Europe into Asia. Archaeology traces the movements of the earliest cultures of the children of Gomer from southern Europe into Asia. (See the previous chapter on the history of Spain under the family of Togarmah.)

Because Gomer was the earliest hero this side the Flood to populate limited areas of Europe, it became a Middle-Age superstition to label all the people of Europe the descendants of Gomer. Most Bible maps are so labeled today. But they are wrong. In the very first chapter, on the history of Germany, is proof that Shem's descendants now inhabit Western Europe. The fiction that Gomer was the ancestor of these people was deliberately, and knowingly, invented to cloak the identity of the House of Israel and of the Chaldeans and Assyrians. The Germans do not want their identity known to the world. Nor do the Chaldeans. And the House of Israel wants to believe it is Gentile.

Now to continue the history of Italy as preserved to us from the same sources which give us German, Spanish and early British history.

Patriarchs, Rulers and Kings of Italy Years Dates Uninhabited after the Flood. 108 2369-2261 Janus (Noah) plants colonies 33 2261-2228 in Mediterranean. Janus was also called Vertumnus because through him the seasons continue in their cycle.

Noah exercised authority in the period that both Shem and Heber appear dominant on the world scene elsewhere.

Gomer -- his son Ashkenaz 58 2228-2170 (Ochus) succeeded him.

Ochus, son of Gomer. 50 2170-2120 Camese (Ham) 19 2120-2101 Janus (Noah again) 82 2101-2019 Cranus Razenus, son of Janus 54 2019-1965 or Noah -- Shem; the name means the crowned one, and father of many races or peoples.

Aurunus, son of predecessor -- 43 1965-1922 Aram -- from whom descended the Ausonians or Uzites.

Tagus Ormah (Togarmah), son 42 1922-1880 of Gomer. Togarmah augmented and established a religious system which came to be called the "rites of Janus." Here was an early parallel of the later pagan attempt to establish its religion on the world in the name of Christ. Togarmah obtained the designation Malot because he AUGMENTED -- the meaning of malot -- the pagan rites. Is it not significant that those lands most filled with hideous pagan superstition are the very areas settled by the sons of Gomer and especially Togarmah -- Tibet and Siberia? The Tibetans acquired their rites from Italy!

Sicanus, son of Togarmah. 30 1880-1850 His wife was Ceres, who was worshipped as goddess of agriculture. It was her ideas which encouraged priests of the pagan religion to support themselves by living off the agricultural labor of others.

Sicanus left only a daughter, Proserpina, who was married to Orcus, king of the Molossi in Epirus. Thereafter the government passed to petty kings or Tyrants.

Reign of Enachi Tyrants. 30 1850-1820 This period corresponds in part to the time of the African invasion of Spain. Their overthrow was recorded in Greek myth as the war with the giants.

Were these sons of Anak?

Osiris Apis 10 1820-1810 Osyris of Egypt drove out (or 12) 1820-1808 tyrants and reigned in their stead. He is Sendi, King of Egypt.

Lestrigonians, sons of 45 1810-1765 Neptune, the son of Osiris. (or 43) (1808-1765)

For last ten years of his reign Hercules warred against Lestrigo.

Heracles, Seir the Horite 30 1765-1735 in Scripture; called "Oron" -- the Horite -- in Spanish Literature.

Tuscus, son of Heracles. He 27 1735-1708 drilled people in art of war.

Alteus, son of Tuscus. 7 1708-1701 Hesperus, brother of Atlas. 11 1701-1690 Italus Atlantus Kittim. 19 1690-1671 (See history of Spain for his identity.) Atlas left only a daughter Roma (or Electra); she was therefore of the family of Abraham through Keturah's son Midian, according to Josephus and the records of Spain.

Morges, a prince of the 20 1671-1651 Morgetae in Italy.

Cambon, son of Blasco, called 50 1651-1601 Corito or Corythus. Married (33) jointly (1634-1601)

Roma (Electra) daughter of with Roma Atlas Kitim; she was the concubine of a Jupiter. Sammes' "Britannia Antiqua Illustrata" is of major assistance in clarifying Anderson's "Royal Geneologies" during this period. See also "Historia" by Bartholome Gutierrez, page 165.

Jasius 50 1601-1551 A descendant of Jupiter, but not from Electra. In the year 1601 the throne of Britain had become vacant and Jasius was chosen to fill the vacant throne in Britain. From Britain he ruled all Celtica and Italy. At his death the throne of Britain was separated from Italy. The royal line continues in Italy thus: Corybantus. 48 1551-1503 Corybantus was the son of Jasius and Cybele. He and his mother divided Italy into 12 provinces and set over them 12 rulers, after which they retired into Phrygia. A few Israelites were fleeing from Egypt at this period due to persecution by the Egyptians.

Tyrrenus migrates with 51 1503-1452 Lydians from Asia Minor.

After his reign the unity of Italy ceased. Not until the rise of the Roman Republic did all the numerous tribes in Italy again become united under one government. Hereafter the history of Italy is the story of the Kings of the Tuscans and of Kittim. The history parallel to the Kingdom of Etruria will be presented after that of the Tuscans.

THE HISTORY OF ETRURIA

The story of Etruria or Tuscany is essentially the history of those invading nations who dwelt in Italy, but were not descended from Kittim. The people of Etruria were a heterogeneous group of tribes. Kings of the Tuscans Lengths of Reign Dates Tharcon I 23 1452-1429 (34) (1452-1418)

Abas 15 1429-1414 (15) (1418-1403)

Olanus 21 1414-1393 (23) (1403-1380)

Veibenus 42 1393-1351 (48) (1380-1332)

Oscus 34 1351-1317 (17) (1332-1315)

Tharcon II 46 1317-1271 (44) (1315-1271)

Tiberinus, expels Pelasgi 30 1271-1241 from Italy in time of Jabin, king of Canaan.

Mezentius. 22 1241-1219 He was expelled for his tyranny and fled to Cerytes during the rule of Tharcon III. Mezentius afterwards aided Turnus against Aeneas.

Tharcon III 20 1219-1199 Ocnus Blanor 46 1199-1153 Pipinus 52 1153-1103 Nicius Fesulanus. 47 1101-1054 He expelled the Phoenicians from the isle of Corsica, and built the city of Nicea.

Piseus. 52 1054-1002 He is credited with several inventions. This is the era of Solomon and world wide growth in culture and in foreign trade.

Thuscus 39 1002- 963 Amnus 25 963- 938 Felsinus. 43 938- 895 He built Felsina the metropolis of the Tuscans.

Bon 28 895- 867 Atreius 27 867- 840 Marsias 18 840- 822 Etalus 39 822- 783 Coelius 21 783- 762 Galerius Arbanus Lucumo 20 762- 742 Lukius 25 742- 717 Cibitus 82 717- 635 Lucumo Clusinus 58 635- 577 King Tarquinus Priscus of (or 38 to the time (635- 597)

Rome wasted Tuscany about of struggle 596, but at their entreaty with Rome.)

a peace was concluded in 584, By this peace they gave to Tarquin a crown of gold, an ivory chair, a sceptre with an eagle at the end of it, a purple robe embroidered with gold, a gown and 12 axes, which Tarquin received with the senate's consent.

Rhaetus 20 577- 557 He gave name to the Rhetians, a people of the Alps. King Serbius Tullius of Rome triumphed three times over the Tuscans, who were at last forced to submit.

Hyellus 44 557- 513 Porcena Clusius 58 513-455 Tolumnius Laertes 24 455- 431 Eques Tuscus 40 431- 391 Livius Fidenatus 48 391- 343 Elbius Tuscus 32 343- 311 Turrenus 41 311- 270 A major blow was struck, beginning in 285, against Etruria. The king surrendered his government to the Romans. So closed the independent history of the Tuscan tribes in Etruria, many of whom now scattered into neighboring regions. Subordinate princes continued as follows until the reign of Emperor Otho.

Titus (Tito) 40 270- 230 Volturrenus 48 230- 182 Cecinna 56 182- 126 Menippus 46 126- 80 Menodorus 36 80- 44 Mencenate 56 B.C. 44 - 13 A.D.

Seinao 23 13- 36 Scevino 33 36- 69 Otho Torentius (the 1 (actually 69 Emperor Otho) ruled only 3 months -- Jan. 15-Apr. 19, 69)

THE HISTORY OF THE LATINS

Meanwhile the descendants of the children of Kittim were being ruled over by descendants of the family of Abraham. The famous woman Electra or Roma was daughter of Atlas Kittim. Josephus reveals Atlas to have been Epher, Abraham's grandson. His daughter is called the concubine of Jupiter (see Icelandic history earlier in this volume), From Electra, who later married Cambon, came a line of rulers who were later accounted gods or divine heroes. The list carries us down to the coming of Aeneas of Troy, recorded in Volume I. All these royal lines were related to the family of Abraham.

List of Kings Length of Reign Dates Roma, previously concubine 46 1634-1588 of Jupiter.

Romanessus, son of 79 1588-1509 Roma.

Picus 57 1509-1452 Faunus 30 1452-1422 Annus 54 1422-1368 Vulcan 36 1368-1332 Marte (Mars) sometimes 23 1332-1309 referred to as Janus.

Saturn, arrived from 36 1309-1273 Crete in 1331.

Picus, sometimes called 34 1273-1239 Jupiter.

Faunus the younger. 24 1239-1215 Latinus (Lateinos) 38 1215-1177 The year 35 of Latinus was 1181-1180. Aeneas of Troy arrived that year (see Dionysius of Halicarnassus, I, 44). In year 38 (1178-1177)

Latinus died and Aeneas succeeded -- by the Roman non-accession year system.

To conclude the surprising early history of Italy, here is a slightly different mode of reckoning the earliest rulers. Anderson's "Royal Genealogies" records, from documents extant in the sixteenth century, the lengths of reigns from the time of Shem's settlement of colonies in Europe. That event may be dated from the "Bavarian Chronicle" to 2214.

 Gomer 127 (2214-2087); Janus or Noah 45 (2087-2042); Sabatius Saga, a son of Cush who fled Armenia via Germany to Italy, 31 (2042-2011); Cranus 61 (2011-1950); Arunus 41 (1950-1909); Malot Tages 38 (1909-1871); Sicanus 30 (1871-1841); Tyrants 38 (1841-1803); Osyris 10 (1803-1793); Lestrigo 33 (1793-1760); Hercules 30 (1760-1730); Tuscus 35 (1730-1695); Alteus 20 (1695-1675); Atlas Italus Kittim 16 (1675-1659); Morges 9 (1659-1650); Camboblasco 50 (1650-1600); Jasius 49 (1600-1551); Coribantus 41 (1551-1510).

Coribantus and his mother set twelve princes over twelve provinces and departed to Phrygia in Asia Minor. As Coribantus is otherwise assigned a total of 48 years (1551-1503), his 41-year reign indicates that the twelve princes governed the last seven years of his reign (1510-1503).

CHAPTER X -- THE STORY OF THE PERUVIAN INDIANS

Strange as it may seem, the Peruvian Indians preserved their history back to Babel. Pre-Inca records specifically refer to and date correctly the reigns of Cush, Nimrod and Horus, or Gilgamesh! Every generation of rulers over the children of Tiras are named to the coming of the Incas. Yet today all this has been lost to public knowledge.

MODERN SCHOLARSHIP DISCARDED THE FACTS

Modern scholars have done little to acquaint us with the true history of early Peru. In the early centuries following the Spanish conquest of Peru and neighboring regions, many native records came into the possession of the conquerors. The assumption that the Incas knew only how to tie knots in a string to remind them of the past is absurd. Granted, the 'quipus' -- or knotted strings -- were used.

The Peruvian Indians also painted records of past events. They had trained priests whose function was to record and repeat the traditions of the past. The fact that the Spanish did recover the history of the Peruvian Indians from the beginning is in itself proof that a great many records were available. No nation which was able to achieve the architectural wonders of the Peruvian highlands would lack the means to preserve its heritage.

The modern view of Peruvian history is that it cannot be established more than a century before the commencement of the Spanish colonial period. Archaeologists have done amazingly well in recovering cultural artifacts buried in the ground, but they have thus far been unwilling to associate what they find with early Peruvian history found in the authentic Indian records by the conquerors. The slightest study of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa's "History of the Incas" would have confirmed the accuracy of his outline. Archaeology everywhere substantiates the written record wherever it has been carefully preserved.

Sir Clements Markham has contributed heavily toward Inca and Pre-Inca studies by his two books "The Incas of Peru" and "History of the Incas." The former contains the list of kings from the beginning as preserved by Montesinos. It gives just over 100 names out of which nearly 80% have the lengths of reign preserved. Montesinos did not give sufficient information to establish every reign, but the list is so nearly complete that it is not at all difficult to determine contemporary events between Peru and the rest of the world. The latter volume preserves an invaluable outline of the Inca period.

WHAT ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOUND

Archaeologists are not settled on terminology, but they have described Peruvian remains rather well. The story begins with an Incipient Era of hunting and early agriculture. There follows a Developmental Era that is usually not well divided. It ought to be expressed in two, rather than three phases -- the Formative and the Cultist -- to use archaeological Jargon. There is great technical progress and a widespread religious cult. A complete break ends the Cultist period.

Thereafter a Florescent Era appears, around 350 B.C., with many new techniques indicative of a dynamic period. In some ways the level of the artistic sense, however, does not advance.

Then comes a Climactic Era, commencing shortly after 500 A.D. It is divided into Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist periods. The Expansionist commences with conquest and political and social unification. It breaks down into disruption and decadence. Local autonomy with large centers of population characterize the Urbanist.

The Imperialist is a great military Empire, which was superseded, in 1532, by the Spanish Colonial period.

Archaeologists and historians alike have limited the Inca rule exclusively to the Imperialist and generally date it around 1440. Had they read the Inca history they would have found that the entire Climactic Era, beginning shortly after 500 A.D. belongs to the Incas.

Sarmiento de Gamboa commences Inca rule in 565 A.D. And rightly so. The history of the Inca royal family corresponds in exact detail, period by period, with Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist.

One objection often presented to such an extensive Inca period is the unusually long length of life necessitated for the rulers. Several are over a hundred years old. The argument would be valid if it were possible to demonstrate that human beings cannot live that long! But human beings do often live to be well over one hundred years of age.

For example, long after Moses wrote that the life span of man centers about 70 years, individuals are still recorded as living past 120 years. In those days the Peruvian highlands were virgin, and fit for vigorous living. In some instances the length of reign is due to birth of a son in the Inca's old age -- or to a birth of an heir after the death of a predecessor. History, when confirmed by archaeology, should be allowed to speak for itself.

Now to illustrate the history of Peru, from the Tower of Babel to the Spanish Colonial period. Notice that the names of even the earliest rulers appear in the native dialect. Many of the names are titles or epithets.

Names of Peruvians Lengths of Reign Dates Beginning at Babel The first 18 are of the Pirua Dynasty. The relationship of one to another is not always stated.

1 Pirua Pacari Manco (Ayar 60 2254-2194 Uchu), the Cush of the Bible.

2. Manco Capac I, the Nimrod 30 2194-2164 of Scripture. He built the first city after the flood.

(Markham, "Hist. of the Incas", p. 51)

3. Huanacahui Pirua 50 2164-2114

4. Sinchi Cozque 60 2114-2054

5. Inti Capac Yupanqui 50 2054-2004

6. Manco Capac II, is Horus; 20 2004-1984 note that in Inca records he has same name as Nimrod does in Inca tradition.

ILLUSTRATION FROM BURMA

The date 2004 is a remarkable parallel for the return to power of Horus in Mesopotamia in 2006. Clearly the ancestors of the Peruvians lived outside Mesopotamia, bordering on the River Tyras. As confirmation of the exactness of Peruvian material, compare the following figures which have been extracted from the earliest history of Burma. Notice the same figure 2004 for Maradzi II. The ancestors of the Burmese Arakan people were at that time also living in the steppes of Russia.

Early Kings who Ruled Lengths of Reign Dates Over People who now from Burmese Records live in Arakan, Burma (Stokvls' "Manuel")

Marayu, is Cush 62 2254-2192 Maradzi I, is Nimrod 32 2192-2160 The name is derived from the Hebrew root "marad," to rebel. A Maradzu is a great rebel.

Maraonleng 53 2160-2107 Mararwayleng 48 2107-2059 Marabheng 55 2059-2004 Maradzi II, is Horus 33 2004-1971, etc.

Now to continue with the Peruvian Kings.

Figures below are approxi- mately the points of reign since the lengths of reign are in some cases lost.

7. Tupac Capac -- 1950

8. Tini Capac Yupanqui -- 1900

9. Titu Capac Yupanqui -- 1875

10. Inti Capac Pirua Amaru -- 1850

11. Capac Sayhua Capac 60 1800

12. Capac Tinia Yupanqui 40 1750

13. Ayar Tacko 25 1725

14. Huascar Titu 30 1700

15. Quispi Titu -- 1675

16. Titu Yupanqui Patchacutec I -- 1650

17. Titu Capac 25 1625

18. Paullu Ticac Pirua 30 1600 A new line of kings commences with Amauta. The word signifies a Magian, or priest.

19. Lloque Tesag Amauta, a priest 50 1575 or Magian Is there not a connection here with the Empire of Sargon and his sons in Mesopotamia? They had a vast empire, and on more than one occasion Sargon voyaged across the seas. (See Pritchard's "Ancient Near Eastern Texts".)

20. Cayo Manco Amauta I -- 1525

21. Huascar Titu Tupac 33 1500 22 Manco Capac III Amauta 50 1450 23 Ticac Pupac 30 1425

24. Paullu Tutu Capac 19 1400

25. Cayo Manco Amauta II 30 1375

26. Marasco Patchacutec 40 1325

27. Paullu Atauchi Capac -- 1300

28. Lluqui Yupanqui 14 1275

29. Lluqui Ticac 8 1265

30. Capac Yupanqui I 50 1225 31, Tupac Yupanqui I 18 1200

32. Manco Auqui Tupac Patchacutee 50 1150

33. Sinchi Apusqui Huarma Huiracocha 40 1120

34. Auqui Quitu Atauchi 4 1100

35. Ayay Manco -- 1075

36. Huiracocha Capac 15 1060

37. Tchinchi Roca Amauta 20 1040

38. Tupac Amaru Amauta 25 1020

39. Capac Raymi Amauta -- 1000 This ruler instituted certain festivals in his name. He is parallel with the time of Odin I of Denmark and of Solomon. He was the mainspring behind the development of what archaeologists call the Cultist Era. This Era is illustrative of the contact between Old and New World during certain significant ages.

40. IllJa Tupac 3 -- --

41. Tupac Amauta 3 990

42. Huanacauri I 4 -- --

43. Toca Corca Apu Capac 45 960

44. Huampar Xayri Tupac I 32 925

45. Hinac Huillja Amauta Pachacuti 35 900

46. Capac Yupanqui II Amauta 35 860

47. Huampar Xayri Tupac II -- 830

48. Cayo Manqui Auqui 3 820

49. Hinac Huillja 30 800

50. Inti Capac Amauta 30 760

51. Ayar Manco Capac -- 730

52. Yahuar Huquiz, gives his 30 710 name to five intercalary days added to calendar to adjust spring equinox

53. Capac Titu Yupanqui 23 680

54. Tupac Curi I Amauta 39 640

55. Tupac Curi II 40 600

56. Huillcanota Amauta 60 540

57. Tupac Yupanqui II 43 500

58. Illja Tupac Capac 4 -- --

59. Titu Raymi Cozque 31 460

60. Huqui Nina Auqui 43 430

61. Manco Capac IV 23 390

62. Cayo Manco Capac 20 365

63. Sinchi Ayar Manco 7 360 A major invasion occurs in his reign from the Southeast. This begins the true Florescent Era, as labeled by archaeologists.

64. Huaman Tacko Amauta 5 355

65. Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II -- --

66. Titu Huaman Quitu -- 325

67. Cozque Huaman Titu -- --

68. Cuis Manco 50 275

69. Huillja Titu 30 240

70. Xayri Tupac 40 200

71. Tupac Yupanqui III 25 175

72. Huayna Tupac I 37 140

73. Huanacauri II 10 130

74. Huillja Huaman 60 70

75. Huaman Capac 40 30

76. Paullu Raymi 19 10

77. Manco Capac V Amauta -- 10

78. Auqui Atau Huillja 35 40

79. Manco Titu Capac 32 90

80. Huayna Tupac II 50 140

81. Tupac Cauri Pachacuti -- 170

82. Arantial -- 200

83. Huari Titu Capac -- 225

84. Huispa Titu Auqui 18 250

85. Toco Cozque -- 270

86. Ayar Manco 22 290

87. Cuntur Roca -- 320

88. Amaru -- 340 From here on a definite sequence of dates is possible.

89. Sinchi Roca 41 365-406

90. Illja Toca 62 406-468

91. Lluqui Yupanqui 45 468-513

92. Roca Titu 25 513-538

93. Inti Mayta Capac Pachacuti 27 538-565 This concludes the Pre-Inca Era. Notice that when Montesino's account is properly begun at Babel it is in perfect harmony with the time element in the next era.

THE INCA RULERS

The succeeding chart illustrates the story of the great Inca period. It begins in 565. Is it significant that this is the year of a major movement of peripheral peoples out of the British Isles in the days of Gildas? ("Ency. Brit.", art. "Cave," in eleventh ed.) The Incas were of a complexion much lighter than their subjects.

The comments in the following section may be verified in J. A.

Mason's "Ancient Civilizations of Peru", p. 110.

Inca Kings Lengths of Reign Dates or Until an Heir According Chosen to Sarmiento Beginning of Expansionist Period

1. Manco Capac 100 565-665 A.D.

2. Sinchi Roca 19 665-684 According to Garcilassan's account this king begins expansion.

3. Lloqui Yupanqui 111 684-795 Extended domain to Lake Titicaca.

4. Mayta Capac 110 795-905 Increases realm to Tiahuanaco and headwaters of coastal rivers. He is the first great conqueror.

5. Capac Yupanqui 89 905-994 Troubles develop toward end of his reign. The succeeding kings belong to the Urbanist period.

6. Inca Roca 103 994-1097 Near total collapse at beginning of his reign. He subjugates areas only 20 miles from capital of Cuxco.

7. Titu Cuisi Hualpa 96 1097-1193 (Yahuar-huaccac)

8. Viracocha Inca 101 1193-1294 Wars with Chanca, Lupaca and Colla. His own capital besieged. Inca Urcon, dethroned -- -- The succeeding Incas belong to the Imperialist period.

9. Inca (Cusi) Yupanqui Pachacuti 103 1294-1397 Begins conquests in the vicinity of Cuzco.

10. Tupac Inca Yupanqui 67 1397-1464 11 Huayna Capac 60 1464-1524

12. Huascar Inca 7 1524-1531

13. Atahuallpa 2 1531-1533 Tupac Huallpa -- 1533

14. Manco Inca, crowned by Pizarro 11 1533-1544 Xayri Tupac 17 1544-1561 Quispe Yupanqui 8 1561-1569 Tupac Amaru 3 1569-1572 With this restoration, though partly incomplete, the early history of South America comes into its proper place in World History.

CHAPTER XI -- ANCIENT PERSIA AND TURKESTAN

One thousand years of Persian history is missing from today's history textbooks. Most writers begin their account of Persia about the time of Cyrus the Great. A few archaeological notes usually precede the story. But the real history of Persia (or Iran) for a thousand years before Cyrus has been deliberately removed from history books.

EARLY KINGS OF PERSIA

Persia, the modern Iran, like most other nations, has preserved its history from early times. Traditions and legends have no doubt been added along the way. But the main framework and sequence of events is so clearly preserved that no doubt about the facts need exist. Of course there is a reason why early Persian history is rejected. It includes several Biblical heroes! That alone, in the eyes of modern interpreters of history, is enough to condemn any record.

Early Persian history has been preserved not only by Persian and Arabic writers, but in a few rare translations into modern languages.

Perhaps the most complete is Shea's "Early Kings of Persia." A less complete account may be recovered from D'Herbelot's "Bibliotheque Orientale." More complete is the analysis in "Universal History," Vol. V.

Before recounting in brief the history of Persia, it would be well to compare, below, the table of rulers from Mirkhond, the Persian historian, with that of other oriental authors. One is immediately aware of figures that at first glance seem preposterous. But each one has significant meaning. They are not all lengths of reign -- several are based on time lapses since the beginning of important eras. Without these long figures, it would not be possible to restore Persian history.

Table of Persian Rulers From Mirkhond From Other Oriental Authors Dynasty or Pishdadians or Judges

1. Kajomaras or Cajoumaras 40 560

2. Siamek, a son, slain after -- -- very brief reign. Kajomaras resumes kingdom -- 30 An interregnum. -- 200

3. Hushang 50 50

4. Tamurash, said to be 30 -- grandson of Hushang

5. Giemshid or Giamschid, 30 30 descendant of Kajomaras

6. Dahak or Zahak (Zoak), -- 1000 an Arab

7. Aphridun, or Feridoun, son -- 120 of Giemshid

8. Manugjahr or Manougeher 120 500 surnamed Phirouz; son of Irege, son of Feridoun

9. Nodar or Nudar, a son 7 7

10. Apherasiab or Afrasiab, 12 12 descendant of Tur, the son of Feridoun

11. Zaab, Zab, Zoub, or -- 30 Bazab, heir of the house of Kajomaras

12. Gustasp, or Kischtasp, -- 30 or 20 son of Zaab Dynasty of Kaianites

1. Kaikobad 100 120

2. Kaikaus 150 150

3. Kaikhosru or Kaihosru 60 60

4. Lohrasp or Lohorasb 120 120

5. Gushtasp, Gustasp or 120 120 Kishtasp, son of Lohrasp 6 Ardshir, surnamed Bahaman, 112 112 grandson of Gustasp

7. Queen Homai 32 32

8. Darab I (Persian spelling 4 14 of Darius)

9. Darab II 14 -- After him came Iscander Ben Filoukous -- Alexander the son of Philip. The time element at the close of this list is clear. The days of Alexander the Great have been reached. Darab II is Persian king Darius III Codomannus. He was slain in 330, after Alexander overthrew his empire. But most of the preceding names in the table of kings are not those found in history books. The answer is that Persia's last king was not a direct descendant of the great Persian kings of history. This table of Persian royal names is an account of another branch of royalty -- the family of Darius Codomannus.

Once we know the date of Darab II -- his reign ends in 330 -- it is possible to restore the whole list, if we just take the figures exactly as they are. The following chart is the restoration of the Dynasty of the Kaianites -- combining both Mirkhond and other oriental writers.

THE SECOND RACE

The Second Race, or Lengths of Time Dates Dynasty of the Kaianites l. Kaikobad 100 1042-942 He reigned 20 years with (or 120) (1062-942) a predecessor.

2. Kaikaus, grandson of 150 942-792 Kaikobad The 150 years represent the duration of time since the death of his grandfather.

3. Kaikhosru, grandson of 60 792-732 Kaikaus He died without male heir.

4. Lohorasp, a near relative 120 732-612 of Kaikhosru Note that the year of his death is 612 -- the date of the fall of Nineveh. Lohorasp was an ally of Assyria. He joined with the Assyrians in their conquest of the Jews in Palestine in the days of king Manasseh. He perished in 612 in a revolt which carried Persia from the Assyrian camp to that of the Medes and Babylonians.

5. Gustasp, called Hystaspes 120 612-492 in Greek literature.

Nearly 30 years after he came to power in a revolt against his father, Gustasp was involved in a war with the inhabitants of Turkestan and Scythia. This is the struggle which occurred in 584 between Media and Scythia (see Vol. I of the Compendium).

The long reigns assigned to this family may reflect the practice of choosing the youngest heir. In several instances a grandson is the successor. Or the figures may represent reckoning by eras and may not distinguish the separate reigns of father and son, who may also have had the same throne names.

6. Ardshir Bahaman, surnamed 112 492-380 Dirazdest -- the long- handed. He is the Artaxerxes Longimanus of history. Here again the assigned length extends beyond the life of the king, and is in fact the practice of reckoning in eras.

7. Queen Homai daughter of 32 380-348 Ardshir according to most Persian authors.

8. Darab I, her son, say the 4 348-344 eastern traditions, by her (or 14) (358-344)

own father. The date 358 is that of Artaxerxes III Ochus of history texts.

9. Darab II, slain in 330 14 344-330

THE FIRST RACE

Persian historians commonly refer to the early judges and kings of their land as the "first race" and the "second race." The second has just been restored. The first is now possible to date. Its last king or Judge, Gustasp, ended his reign in 1042, at which time he was succeeded by Kaikobad of the "second race." With 1042 as ending date, the reign of Kajomaras would begin in 1741. Observe how all these figures fit as pieces of a puzzle.

The First Race of Lengths of Time Dates Persian Rulers

1. Kajomaras, a descendant 40 1741-1701 of Aram (560) (2261-1701) What occurred in 2261? What era does this mark? It is 108 years after the flood. Now check Italian history.

There we notice that 2261 is the date when Noah began to send out colonies to inhabit new areas of the world. This separation of the land to various families and races is what Nimrod rebelled against. So Persian history confirms what has already been established from ancient Italian records preserved among the Etruscans.

Note that 1741 marks the end of the sole reign of Senwosre III or Sesostris, the great Egyptian conqueror of the Near East -- including Persia.

2. Siamek Shortly after ascending the throne he was slain (1701).

Kajomaras returns to power 30 1701-1671 After Kajomaras no supreme rulers in Persia are recorded for a space of 200 years -- 1671-1471. This period of Interregnum has an important bearing on the history of the Tatars. And also on Assyria (see Vol. I of Compendium).

3. Hushang, surnamed Pishdud 50 1471-142I (meaning judge). Hushang began the Dynasty of judge- kings -- the Pishdadians, Who was this man? His Persian name -- Hushang -- would be Husham in Hebrew.

Is there in the Biblical record a Husham living about the time of Moses and Joshua? Indeed there is! Turn to the record in Genesis 36:31 and 34: "And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel of Temani reigned ...." This Husham or Hushang, famous in the Biblical record, is the Temanite king who ruled over the children of Esau or Edom. His native land was in Persia -- proving how early certain of the children of Esau were moving out of the land of Edom by the Red Sea into the land of Persia and Turkestan, Husham was king over the widely scattered tribes of Edom. He was the great ruler who ordered Moses not to cross his territory in the year 1448-1447.

But Husham's is not the only name that will appear in Persian history from this list in Genesis 36.

4. Tahmurash 30 1421-1391

5. Giemshid 30 1391-1361

6. Dahak, a famous man out of Arabia who came to power in the last years of Giemshid. He drove the latter into exile, hunted him down when he discovered Giemshid had a son, and finally slew him.

What do the 1000 years represent?

There is only one possible explanation. He came to the Persian throne 1000 years after the Flood -- 2369-1369.

In 1369 he drove Giemshid from the throne. The time of Dahak's power in Persia is therefore 8 years -- 1369- 1361. In 1361 a son of Giemshid, now three years old, came to the throne with the death of Dahak.

7. Alphidun 120 1361-1241 The new king lived 123 years.

He married the daughter of Dahak. He divided his realm between his sons. To Tur he gave Turkestan. To Irege, son of a Persian woman, the realm of Persia was assigned. From Tur the Temanite inhabitants of Turkestan took the name Turan or Turk. In the family quarrels which followed, all the sons of Alphidun were slain, and the kingship passed to Manougeher, son of Irege.

8. Manougeher, surnamed Phirouz 120 1241-1121 From him the people of Iran called Persians. Phirouz is the Perses of Greek tradition who lived at the time of the war with Troy!

But what of the figure 500? Answer: Manougeher came to power in 1241, exactly 500 years after Kajomaras came to the royal estate -- 1741-1241.

9. Nodar 7 1121-1114

10. Apherasiab 12 1114-1102 He was a great Khan of Turkestan, a descendant of Tur, and joined Persia with Tartary. Constant rebellion led at length to the establishment of a descendant of Kajomaras on the Persian throne.

11. Zaab or Bazab 30 1102-1072 Who was this Zaab? Turn to Genesis 36:39. Hadar, king of Edom, married "Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-zahab" ("Jewish Publ. Soc."). (Mezahab is the KJV spelling.) Bazab is but an altered and shortened spelling of the Hebrew Me-zahab (the letters "b" and "m" being easily interchangeable in Indo European tongues -- cf.

Emher for Eber in Irish).

Hadar is the last king in Edom who began to reign before Saul.

The chronology of Persia is in perfect harmony with the Biblical account.

Here again is proof that the Bible is the foundation of knowledge. Without the list of rulers of Edom in Genesis 36, it would not be possible to understand fully who the early rulers of Persia were.

12. Gustasp or Kischtasp 30 1072-1042 The 20 years of certain (or 20) (1062-1042)

oriental writers is the duration of the joint reign with Kaikobad. Persian historians declare that Kishtasp was the son of a Jewess of the tribe of Benjamin. This was the very time of the dominance of Benjamin in Israel -- and especially the family of Kish, the father of Saul. The reign of Gustasp was put to an end by struggles with Apherasiab of Turkestan. In this time of national struggle, an heir of the line of Nodar and Zaab established Persian independence from the Turks and founded the Dynasty of the Kaianites or the "second race" of Persian historians.

And that restores the amazing 1000 years of missing Persian history.

TURKESTAN, TURKS AND MONGOLS

In the vast stretches north of Persia live a medley of peoples. Mongols, Tatars, Turks, Turkomen, and Persians, among many others. The history of this area is intimately connected with ancient Persia. The nomadic tribes inhabiting the region have not preserved any chronological framework of their past history, but their line of great Khans has sufficient parallels that the main events of Turkestan or Eastern Scythia may be ascertained.

The Bible labels this vast area the land of Gog (see Ezekiel 38).

Gog was a descendant of Japheth. The western half of these vast reaches belongs today to the Soviet Union. The eastern part is Mongolia and a part of China (Sinkiang Province). The whole area is called Turkestan by geographers.

The word Turk has in the Turkic or Mongolian languages the meaning of "strong warrior." The Mongoloid Turkic people trace their ancestry back to Turk, the adopted son of Japheth. (The Mongoloid Turks are to be distinguished from the Caucasian Osmanli Turks of modern Turkey -- the sons of Teman who acquired the name Turk from living in that geographic area.) The son of Turk in Tatar history was Taunak Khan.

(Khan means ruler.) He was, at least in part, an earlier contemporary of Kajomaras of Persia. Taunak is affirmed to have lived 240 years, according to Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur Khan's "Genealogical History of the Tatars," published in 1730 in London. This is well within the ages listed in Genesis for the patriarchs immediately after the Flood.

Taunak was succeeded in order by Jelza Khan, Dibbakui Khan and Kajuk Khan -- the latter two having long reigns. The son of Kajuk was Alanza Khan or Ilingeh Khan. His was a period of growing prosperity and luxury. He was the father of Tatar Khan, from whom the Tatars trace their name, and of Mogul Khan, from whom the Moguls or Mongols trace their name.

The son of Mogul Khan was Kara Khan. In his day there was a rapid spread of idolatry, declare the Mohammedan Tatar historians. Hushang of Persia was ruler in Persia.

OGUS KHAN

In the days of Kara Khan, after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, his son Oguz or Ogus Khan revolted against the idolatry of his father (see the "Universal History", Vol. XX). Later, Ogus, after 72 years of war, created a vast Mongol Empire. He subjected Cathay (part of China), Tashkent, Samarkand and all Turkestan, Kashmir, part of Armenia and Iran. Iran at this time was without unified leadership during the reign of Giemshid (1391-1361). Oguz Khan carried his conquests (Diodorus of Sicily II, 43) to Egypt. Interestingly, this is the time of the Hyksos rule in Egypt. And one of the Hyksos rulers had the name of Khayan or Khan. This king could be none other than Oguz Khan. His 116 year reign from Tatar history is therefore 1392-1276.

Ogus Khan was succeeded by Kiun Khan (1276-1206). His name means the "sun". The history of Persia indicated that hereafter the kings of Persia dominated the accessible steppes of Turkestan. This would be the time of Alphidun, who set his son Tur over Turkestan. He was followed by Apherasiab. In order there followed Juldus Khan, Mengli Khan, Tengis Khan and Il Khan. In the days of Il Khan (in the 600's B.C.) the Tatars warred against the Mongols and nearly obliterated them. Il had a son Kajan who survived the struggle. For 400 years the Mongols disappear from the pages of Tatar history into the vastnesses of the mountains of Asia.

Now to return to the time of Alanza Khan and his son Tatar Khan.

The Tatars in the Soviet Union trace their early Khans from Tatar the brother of Mogul. From Tatar descended Buka, Jalanzak and Ettala Khan.

Ettala's son Attaisis Khan fought bloody wars -- in the days of Ogus Khan of the Mongols. He was followed by Orda, Baydu and Siuntz Khan.

The latter in a grand alliance destroyed the Mongol power.

After this great victory the Tatars split up under petty rulers and have left us but few names of their rulers. Based on the number of generations this victory over the Mongols occurred in the 600's.

After multiplying in the mountains bordering on Mongolia, the Moguls finally rose to power in the late 200's. In another fifty years they challenged the Tatars, conquered them and became the masters of much of eastern Scythia.

The Tatars and Mongols - descendants of Turk whom Japheth adopted as his son - preserved for posterity the names of over 20 Khans (see Vol. XX of "Universal History") who ruled Mongolia and adjacent territory until the twelfth century of the present era, Then it was that the Mongols burst forth on the world, ravaged Asia and plunged with terrible swiftness west into the heart of Europe under Jenghis Khan.

THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA

The principal source of Armenian history is that of Moses Khoren, a celebrated writer of the fifth century. In part his material is derived from the books of Mar-Abas Catina, a learned Aramean of the second century B.C. Modern archaeology provides additional information beginning with the period of the late Assyrian Empire. Armenian history has been treated in much the same manner as Persian history. Prior to the Assyrian period all is rejected without being examined to see if it corresponds with the parallel accounts of other nations.

Armenian history begins with the account of Haik or Haig, the son of Togarmah, the son of Gomer. What's wrong with Biblical characters suddenly appearing on the scene shortly after the Flood? Nothing -- unless one doesn't want to acknowledge the plain facts of the Bible and history. Historians acknowledge the land about Armenia, as late as the days of Shalmaneser the Great, was known as the land of Togarmah. of course, that is from archaeology!

Armenians descend from Aram, son of Shem (see Josephus).

Intermarriage between Togarmah's family and Aram's has undoubtedly given rise to the unique character of the Armenians.

The following tables, prepared by Michael Chamich and St. Martin, are taken from the "Collection des Historiens Anciens et Modernes de l'Armenie" by Victor Langlois, Paris, 1880, vol. II, pp. 385-386.

PATRIARCHS OF ARMENIA Kamer, Gomer, 37 2178-2141 Armais 40 1816-1776 son of Japheth Togarmah 198 2141-1943 Amassia 32 1776-1744 Haik 81 1943-1862 Gegham 50 1744-1694 Armenak 46 1862-1816 Harma 31 1694-1663 Armenak, declares Issaverdenz, "with a large body of his people, advanced a few days journey to the northeast," and colonized a new area of the Armenian plateau. (Page 56 of "Armenia and the Armenians," Vol. I.)

The family of Aram paralleled the family of Togarmah, rather than succeeding it as most Armenian historians claim.

Aram, son of 58 2108-2050 Shem Aram "was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of renown." One of his "followers" was Mishag or Mishak. Certainly here we have the family of Aram and his son Mash or Meshech of the Bible.

Ara the Handsome 26 2050-2024 Semiramis, Queen of Assyria, offered to marry Ara. He refused. And in an ensuing battle between the Assyrians and Armenians, Ara perished.

Semiramis raised Garthos to the throne in his father's stead. Sometimes his name is spelled Kardos.

During his day Semiramis and Ninyas struggled for the throne in Assyria. She fled to the Armenian king. Out of gratitude for having been placed on the throne, he raised an army and marched with Semiramis against Ninyas Zames. Both Kardos and Semiramis were slain and Ninyas came to the throne in 2006 in Assyria.

Kardos, called 18 2024-2006 Ara Araian Anoushavan 63 2006-1943 Anoushavan had no heir to the throne; submits to Assyria as do his successors; he is succeeded by Haik in 1943.

Paret 50 1663-1613 Geghak 30 1228-1198
Arbak 44 1613-1569 Horo 3 1198-1195
Zavan 37 1569-1532 Zarmair, 12 1195-1183 slain by Achilles
Pharnas I 53 1532-1479 Interregnum 2 1183-1181
Sour 45 1479-1434 Shavarsh II 43 1181-1138
Havanak 30 1434-1404 Perch I 35 1138-1103
Vashtak 22 1404-1382 Arboun 27 1103-1076
Haikak I 18 1382-1364 Perch II 40 1076-1036
Ampak I 14 1364-1350 Bazouk 50 1036- 986
Arnak 17 1350-1333 Hoy 44 986- 942
Shavarsh I 6 1333-1327 Houssak 31 942- 911
Norair 24 1327-1303 Ampak II 27 911- 884
Vestam 13 1303-1290 Kaipak 45 884- 839
Kar 4 1290-1286 Pharnouas I 33 839- 806
Gorak 18 1286-1268 Pharnas II 40 806- 766
Hrant I 25 1268-1243 Skaiordi 17 766- 749
Endzak 15 1243-1228

KINGS OF ARMENIA

Parouyr, 48 749- 701 Haikak II 36 606- 570 frees Armenia from Assyria
Erouand I 4 570- 566
Hratchia 22 701- 679
Tigran I 45 566- 521
Pharnouas, 13 679- 666
the second Vahagn 25 521- 496
Pachouych 35 666- 631 Aravan 20 496- 476
Kornak 8 631- 623 Nerseh 35 476- 441
Phavos 17 623- 606 Zarah 46 441- 395
----------------------
Armog 9 395- 386 Neoptolemus 2 323- 321
Bagam 14 386- 372 Hrant II, or 4 321- 317
Orontes, subject to Greeks
Van 20 372- 352
Ardoates 33 317- 284
Vahe 23 352- 329
(20) (352-332) Hrant II, or 45 284- 239
died in war with Alexander Orontes the Great
Artavazanes 50 239-189
Mihram 6 329- 323 a Persian appointed by Artaxias 30 189-159
Alexander Artavazd 10 159-149
Kurkjian's "History of Armenia" may be consulted for succeeding periods.

Armenian history commences with a settlement of colonists in 2247, seven years after the episode at Babel. These colonists were subject to the rulers in Babylonia for 139 years. They gained their independence in 2108. This date is traditionally assigned to Haik, but rightfully belongs to Aram. Armenian history clearly places the family of Aram contemporary with Semiramis and Ninyas. Since Togarmah settled Armenia earlier than Aram, the line of Aram was inserted after the line of Gomer. It should have been made parallel. The family of Gomer continued down to the time of Paret in 1663. Note that the period assigned to Gomer and Togarmah in Armenian history corresponds with Italian and Spanish history. The white branch of the family was settling in Europe, while the Oriental branch migrated eastward.

It appears that Ul, the son of Aram who settled Armenia, is Ara -- the "r" replacing the "l".

CHAPTER XII -- TROJAN MIGRATION TO FRANCE

After Troy fell, in 1181, the populace in the conquered regions fled from the Greeks to various parts of Europe. One of these groups was led by Aeneas and finally reached Italy. But, there were other groups who left Troy after the First Trojan War. Another group of Trojan refugees was led by Francio the son of the ill-fated Hector, and heir to the line of Samothes in Gaul. These fled to the northern shore of the Black Sea, then returned to Isauria in Asia Minor, from where they migrated to Pannonia and then on to Western Europe. From these Trojans is descended the house of the Dukes of Brabant (an old province embracing parts of modern Belgium and the Netherlands). From this Assyro-Judaic family came Charlemagne, the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

A complete list of these Trojan rulers, from Hector down to Charlemagne, is found in the work by Jhr. C. A. Rethaan Macaré entitled "Oude Kronijk van Brabant", in the "Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus," series 2, part 3, published by Het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht, Utrecht, Holland in 1855.

The chronology starts with 1181 and continues right down the line without complications till Silvius Brabon II, who begins to reign in

732. The beginning and end of each reign is synchronized with contemporary Biblical history, which, incidentally, is presented in its correct chronology down to a period long after the dividing of the monarchy. Between Silvius Brabon II and Troylus II (370-331) complications are introduced. The author will state a certain figure for the length of the reign, yet this will completely disagree with the length of reign obtained through his cross references to contemporary Roman history. Silvius Brabon II, for example, is stated to have reigned 60 years. Yet, the cross references of the beginning and end of his reign in terms of Roman history show that he reigned only 32 years. The difficulty is readily overcome when we realize that the Trojan rulers of this period shared the throne jointly with either a successor or a predecessor. The author preserved the correct lengths of individual reigns only in the cross references to contemporary Roman history.

Charlemagne, too, it must be remembered, ruled jointly with his brother.

The recording of joint reigns ceases after Troylus II and the chronology again becomes uniform. Troylus II ruled jointly with his successor, Priamus VI. It will be noticed, below, that even in the figures for his sole reign, the last year overlaps with the first year of his successor. This is stated in the author's cross references to contemporary Roman and Greek history.

Under the Princes and Dukes of Brabant there are two short interregnums which become apparent from the chronology, one in A.D.

456-459 and the other in A.D. 714-715. We must remember that this is the story of Brabant though the individuals concerned had other dominions and offices as well. Charlemagne, for example, was a Duke of Brabant, but he was also King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor at the same time. The short interregnums therefore mean nothing more than that the title to the dukedom was vacant for that period of time. The ruler himself was usually alive, but simply did not claim the dukedom.

This is only a matter of internal politics and does not affect the chronology of the history as a whole.

TROJANS KINGS OF ISAURIA

Kings Length of Reign Dates

1. Francio, son of Hector, 21 1181-1160 flees from Troy with his brother Turcus to 10 1160-1150 Maeotis, where they rule 21 years. From there they migrate to Isauria, where Francio drives out his brother Turcus and reigns 10 years.

2. Hector II, marries 31 1150-1119 daughter of king of Cilicia.

3. Troylus 56 1119-1063

4. Francio II, whose brother -- Priam led a migration of Trojans from Isauria to Pannonia, where they remained till expelled by Gratian.

TROJAN KINGS OF SICAMBRIA AND PANNONIA

Kings Length of Reign Dates

1. Priamus II, son of 27 1063-1036 Francio II, commences his reign on the Danube in the 118th year after the fall of Troy, builds city Sycambria.

2. Eneas, marries his 57 1036- 979 aunt, the daughter of Francio II of Isauria.

3. Priamus III, had a 14 979- 965 Scythian wife.

4. Silvius Brabon, had six 49 965- 916 sons. Wandalus settled among the Vandals, Polex gave his name to Poland, Russo went into Russia, Himus migrated to Maeotis, Frixius went to Frisia, and Brabon Silvius inherited his father's throne.

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5. Brabon Silvius I 35 916- 881

6. Hector III, in whose 34 881- 847 days six Sicambrian heroes or rulers, led by one Yber, migrated overland from Sicambria to France with about 4000 men.

They built a city and called it Paris, after the son of Priam.

Themselves they called Parisii.

7. Francio Brabon, had 76 847- 771 a son Troylus and a daughter Ylia. She became, according to the author, the mother of Romulus and Remus.

8. Troylus I 32 771- 739

9. Brabon II 7 739- 732

10. Silvius Brabon II 32 732- 700 joint (60) (732- 672)

11. Hector Brabon, had 37 700- 663 two sons, Demophon and Palamides. Demophon went to Rome where he married the daughter of Ancus Marcius and had by her a son called Tarquinus, who became king of Rome.

12. Palamides, had three 52 663- 611 sons, Deyphebus, joint (61) (672- 611) Parriis and Brabon. Deyphebus went to Dacia, Parriis to some islands in the Pontus.

13. Brabon III, had two sons, 57 611- 554 Priam and Dyomedeus. The latter went to Africa and built there a mighty city.

14. Priamus IV 32 554- 522 joint (50) (572- 522)

15. Philymeus,had three 30 552- 522 sons, Priam, Archadius and Macedo.

From Macedo came the Macedonii, Archadius migrated to Arcadia in Greece and became the first duke of that land. Julius Caesar is descended from him.

16. Priamus V 20 522- 502

17. Brabon IV 50 502- 452 joint with son (11) (452- 441)

18. Laomedon 24 452- 428

19. Pelius, had two 58 428- 370 sons, Troylus and joint (68) (441- 373) Hybertius. The latter sailed with his followers to Hybernia (Ireland).

20. Troylus II 39 370- 331 joint (42) (373- 331)

21. Priamus VI 7 332- 325

22. Francio III 9 325- 316

23. Brabon V 4 316- 312

24. Silvius Brabon III 21 312- 291

25. Brabon Troylus VI 33 291- 258

26. Brabon VII 22 258- 236

27. Brabon VIII 16 236- 220

28. Priamus VII 28 220- 192

29. Hector IV 31 192- 161

30. Brabon IX 4 161- 157

31. Priamus VIII 19 157- 138

32. Francio IV, had 14 20 138- 118 sons and 7 daughters. With him the account of the kings of Sycambria and Pannonia ceases, although the line continued to reign till the time of Gratian.

"Brabon junior," the youngest son of Francio IV. He entered the services of his relative the duke of Arcadia in Greece, and was rewarded for his distinguished service with a wife of noble birth. Ten years after the death of his father, his wife gave birth to a son who was named Brabon Silvius. At the same time Julius Caesar was born to the duke of Arcadia.

"Brabon Silvius" accompanied Julius Caesar in the Roman conquest of Gaul. Julius Caesar conquered the kingdom of Agrippina (Cologne), killed the king, and sent the king's sister Silvana to his father the duke of Arcadia.

At that time there stayed with the duke of Arcadia a man named "Karolus." His father, also called Karolus, was a powerful figure and leader of a military division at Nijmegen. He was born of the old Trojan line, being the son of a certain Pharamunt who had 14 sons. This must be none other than Francio IV (138-118).

"Karolus," the son of Karolus, received a bad reputation because of his licentious life. So his father sent him away from home to the duke of Arcadia. Here, according to the Chronicle, he married the duke's daughter "Zwana," who, upon their return to the Low Countries, gave birth to a son called "Octavianus". This Octavianus later became Roman Emperor Augustus.

Karolus junior also had two daughters, Octaviana and Zwana. Zwana was given by her uncle Julius Caesar in marriage to Brabon Silvius.

After the death of Karolus, Julius Caesar adopted Octavianus. The kingdom of Agrippina he gave to Brabon Silvius.

KINGS OF AGRIPPINA

King Length of Reign Dates

1. Brabon Silvius

2. Karolus I 91 B.C. 53- 39 A.D.

3. Karolus II 41 39- 80

4. Karolus III 65 80- 145

5. Karolus IV 10 145- 155

6. Karolus V 105 155- 260

7. Karolus VI 3 260- 263

8. Karolus VII, conquered 62 263- 325 Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Ireland.

9. Brabon 41 325- 366

10. Karolus VIII 12 366- 378

11. Angisus, during whose reign, in 378 A.D., Gratian drove the Sycambri from Pannonia. They came to the lower Rhine under their leader Priamus. Angisus fought Gratian, but lost 30,000 men and was captured.

He spent seven years as a captive of the Romans, being finally liberated by Theodosius upon the latter's accession to the throne. Maximus, a rival emperor, devastated parts of northern Gaul, and then gave these to Brabon, the six-year- old eldest son of Angisus.

This Brabon thus became the first prince of Brabant, and his position was subsequently recognized by Emperor Theodosius. Angisus had another son, Karolus, who succeeded him in the kingdom.

12. Karolus IX was succeeded by two other kings who are not named. The last was driven out by Franks, who took over the kingdom of Agrippina and made it part of the Frankish realm.

PRINCES OF BRABANT

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Brabon I, was made 32 424- 456 prince of Brabant in the seventh year of his life. He reigned for 32 years after the death of his father.

In his days Clodius, king of the Franks, destroyed the kingdoms of Agrippina and Thuringia, and annexed Brabant. Brabon and his descendants became loyal servants of the Frankish kings. (456- 459)

2. Brabon II 60 459- 519

3. Brabon III 51 519- 570

4. Karolomannus, the last 45 570- 615 prince. After his death Brabant became a dukedom.

DUKES OF BRABANT

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Pippinus of Landen, (35) (612- 647) ruled three years jointly or 32 615- 647 with his father, becomes mayor of the palace to the Frankish king.

2. Grimoaldus, son of Pepin. 13 647- 660

3. Angisus, husband of 25 660- 685 Begga, daughter of Pepin. This Angisus was son of Arnulph, Bishop of Metz, who was the son of Arnold, the son of Anselbert. Anselbert was married to Blitilda, daughter of Lothair I (Clothair), king of Austrasia and Neustria.

4. Pippinus II, of Heristal. 29 685- 714 (714- 715)

5. Karolus Mertellus 26 715- 741

6. Karolomanus, renounced 6 741- 747 his dukedom, entered a monastery in 6th year of reign.

7. Pippinus III "the 21 747- 768 Short," son of joint (27) (741- 768) Karolus Mertellus. By the time Pippinus III came to power, his inheritance included not only Brabant, but also Austrasia, Thuringia, Burgundy, Neustria and Provence. In 752 he was elected King of the Franks, and reigned till his death in 768.

8. Karolomannus, son of 3 768- 771 Pippinus, ruled jointly with his brother Karolus Magnus.

9. Karolus Magnus, 43 771- 814 assumed sole rule joint (46) (768- 814) after his brother's death, became Roman Emperor in 800.

KINGS OF FRISIA

In 321 B.C. a line of princes migrated via India to the area of northern Holland and northwestern Germany under their leader Friso. Friso descended from Ragan or Reu (Gen. 11:19) according to "La Grande Chronique ... de Hollande, Zelande" etc., p. 28. Friso was an adventurer in the service of Alexander the Great. After being released from service, he came with a group of settlers from the river Indus to Europe. There he gained power (313) over the local counts by means of intrigue. A descendant, Friso, became king in 287, commencing a secondary line of rulers.

Name of King Length of Reign Dates Friso I 68 313- 245 Adel I (94) 245- 151 Ubbo (80) 151- 71 Asinga Ascon or "Black Adel" (81) B.C. 71- 11 A D.

Diocarus Segon, joint during (35) A.D. 11- 46 imprisonment of his cousin by Duke of Brabant.

Dibbaldus Segon (39) 46- 85 Tabbo (45) 85- 130

DUKES OF FRISIA

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Asconius 43 130- 173

2. Adelboldus 14 173- 187

3. Titus Boiocalus 53 187- 240

4. Ubbo 59 240- 299

5. Haron Ubbo 36 299- 335

6. Odilbaldus 25 335- 360

7. Udolphus Haron 32 360- 392 After this Frisia again becomes a kingdom.

SECOND GROUP OF KINGS OF FRISIA

Name of King Length of Reign Dates

1. Richardus Uffo 43 392- 435

2. Odilbaldus 35 435- 470

3. Richoldus 63 470- 533

4. Beroaldus 57 533- 590

5. Adgillus I 82 590- 672

6. Radbodus I 51 672- 723

7. Adgillus II 14 723- 737

8. Gondobaldus 12 737- 749

9. Radbodus II 26 749- 775 Frisia, which had already been conquered by the Franks, was made an integral part of the Frankish realm in 775 by Charlemagne. From that time on it was ruled by dukes appointed by the Franks. King lists are derived from "Hamconius" and "Oera Linda Boek."

TROJAN KINGS OF THE BELGIANS

While the descendants of Hector fled Troy and migrated to France, Bavo led another group into Western Europe. This is the little known story of the royal family that governed the Celts and the Belgians on the Continent. Archaeologists have found a vast cultural complex on the Rhine River and its tributaries. The almost unknown account of this area is preserved to us by Jacques de Guyse in his "Histore de Hainaut," a French translation of his original Latin work of the thirteenth century. (Hainaut is an ancient division of Belgium.)

Archaeologists, of course, admit that the Belgian people came from the steppes of Eastern Europe. But just who the people of Belgium, Holland, Frisia, Luxembourg and Northern France are, archaeology has no answer. Yet we do not have to remain in ignorance. History has the answer -- if scholars only had the wit to see. But as with so many records, historians have rejected what they do not want to believe.

They have carefully hidden the Jewish-Trojan origin of the royal houses of Western Europe.

The Belgian line commences with Bavo, the son of a sister of Laomedon, king of Troy. Bavo was therefore a cousin of King Priam.

Following the fall of Troy a migration into Europe occurred along the Danube. It reached the Rhine by 1179. Bavo, reported Jacques de Guyse, "encountered with pleasure the descendants of the Assyrians who have followed Trebeta, and who had been compatriots of the Trojans and served the same deities" ("Table Generale de l'Histoire de Hainaut," II, page 388).

Here, in outline form, is Jacques de Guyse's account of the Belgian rulers after the fall of Troy in 1181. Only the most important details are included from the copious annals of Hainaut.

Priest-kings of the Length of Reign Dates Belgians Bavo 13 1179-1166 Bavo the Belgian (Belginius) 44 1166-1122 Bavo the Lion (Leonius) 20 1122-1102 Bavo the Wolf (Lupinus) 50 1102-1052 Bavo Brunus 35 1052-1017 Brunehuldis 67 1017- 950 Bruno 36 950- 914 Aganippus I 29 914- 885 Aganippus II, husband of 50 885- 835 the British Queen Cordelia.

Audengerius 39 835- 796 Herisbrandus 20 796- 776 With Herisbrand ended the rule of the priest-kings over the Belgians. Political upheaval forced a change in form of government and brought a strong-willed, able warrior to the royal estate. In 776 -- the year of the first Olympiad in Greece -- Ursus, whose name means "bearlike," obtained the throne and organized much of continental Western Europe under his power. The Annals of Hainaut give the following account of the kings of Belgium from 776-470.

King Length of Reign Dates Ursus 34 776- 742 Ursa, daughter of Ursus 1 and a half 742- 741 Gurguncius (Gurgust in 28 741- 713 British history).

Sisillius (was made ruler 10 713- 703 over the Belgians while his father governed the Britons).

Friscembaldus I 31 703- 672 Friscembaldus II 32 672- 640 Waringerus 15 640- 625 Leonius 10 625- 615 Leopardus I 5 615- 610 Leopardus II 30 610- 580 Leopardinus 32 580- 548 A political struggle for two years left the Belgians without a king.

Camber 20 546- 526 Melbrandus 15 526- 511 Blanduinus 6 511- 505 Suardus 15 505- 490 Leo 7 490- 483 Walacrinus 13 483- 470 There followed a number of dukes, annually elected, none of whose names have come down in history. The last, Missenus, whose son came to the throne in 386, is the only one whose name has been preserved. The actual duration of power of the dukes over the provinces of Belgium is traditionally given as 104 years -- evidently from 490 to 386. It therefore appears that they came into prominence with the death of Suardus. The new line of kings which existed until the Roman victory in 52 is as follows: King Length of Reign Dates Leo I 60 386- 326 Leo II 56 326- 270 Leo III 76 270- 194 Leo IV 96 194- 98 Leo V 20 98- 78 Goomerus 8 78- 70 Taynardus 14 70- 56 Usarius, slain by the Romans 4 56- 52 in Caesar's campaign of 52.

Andromadas 6 months 52 Rome crushed all Gaul and Belgium in 52.

KINGS OF THE CELTS IN GAUL

During the period that the priest-kings of the line of Bavo ruled over the Belglans, the Celts in Europe were being governed by another line. This line of kings sprang from Francus, scion of the House of Troy, and last king of the Britons before the coming of Brutus. Francus, according to the historian Freculphe (see Vol. 19 of "Histoire de Hainaut," sec. cclxvii), began a line of kings that ultimately ruled in Gaul. He originally turned over the government of Britain to the Druids (until the time of Brutus). He supported the Trojans against the Greeks. After the Greek victory, he continued to govern the remnants of the Celts along the lower reaches of the Danube basin. An outline of these little-known kings of the Celts is given below.

Kings of the Celts Length of Reign Dates Francus, his reign in 47 1216-1169 British records extends over another 20 years of Druidic rule before the coming of Brutus in 1149.

Sicamber 51 1169-1118 Priam II 23 1118-1095 Hector. Hector had three 28 1095-1067 sons: Brabon, Polidamus and Troilus. The last- named succeeded him.

Troilus 22 1067-1045 Trogotus. Trogotus led (76) (1045- 969)

a migration near the beginning of his reign from Pannonia and Hungary into Gaul. Observe how this record accords with the known migrations about 1040 to Denmark and Scotland and Sweden.

(The length of reign of Trogotus is missing, but may with great probability be reconstructed as above.

The possible proof will be noted later.)

Tongres 34 969- 935 Teuto 32 935- 903 Agrippa 28 903- 875 Ambrio 33 875- 842 Thuringus 34 842- 808 Camber 32 808- 776 The length of reign of Trogotus given above is indicated by the following. The only known Agrippa in the history of Western Europe at this period of history is the Trojan king of Alba in Italy. Not uncommonly have the kings of Italy and Alba ruled Celtica in Gaul.

Jasius did in 1601-1551. A later Silvius came to the British throne (see Vol. I of "Compendium" on British history). This Agrippa could hardly be other than the Agrippa of Italy. Though sometimes assigned 41 years, Eusebius assigns him 40 years in Alba -- 915-875. If Eusebius' figure is used, the 28-year reign of Agrippa over the Celts may be dated 903-875. Then the reign of Camber would be 808-776. It makes sense. Camber reigned until the very year (776) that Ursus began his rule in Belgium. When Ursus came to power he demanded allegiance of both Celts and Germans.

From this restoration it becomes clear that whoever controlled the ancient city Trier (which was then part of Belgium) was in a favorable position to dominate over the Celts of Gaul. A similar situation occurred over 1500 years later when Charlemagne ruled all Western Europe from Aachen, a city near Trier.

CHAPTER XII A -- FURTHER MIGRATIONS TO FRANCE

The old Trojan House, of the line of Dardanus, was restored to power after the Greek defeat at Troy in 1149. The Greeks did not preserve the history of this restoration for two reasons. One, they did not want to recall their defeat in 1149. Second, their writers deliberately confused the history of Troy to make it appear that only one great war occurred between the victorious Greek states and the Trojans. This corruption of Trojan history was the direct result of trying to make Greek history conform to a distorted account of Egyptian history.

The full story of the royal Trojan House that returned to power in Troy has been preserved -- of all places -- in the records of the Spanish Hapsburgs! The reason? The Hapsburgs were in fact lineal descendants of the House of Troy!

A complete list of Trojan rulers after the fall of Troy in 1181 may be found in the original Spanish work by Bartholome Gutierrez entitled: "Historia del estado presente y antiguo, de la mui noble y mui leal ciudad de Xerez de la Frontera." It was published in Xerez, Spain in 1886.

A son of Priam, during that fateful 10-year war which ended in 1181, was named Helenus (See "Lempriere's Classical Dictionary," art.

"Helenus".) Through him the royal line was preserved in the Near East.

Helenus was given, by the Greeks, a part of Epirus. After 1149 his descendants captured control of Troy from the Greeks and the Jewish House of Dardanus was once again restored to Troy. The Spanish history records the following names of his descendants who governed Troy until the Third Trojan War which ended the city in 677.

Princes of Troy (with the common Latin endings)

1. Zenter, son of Helenus 9. Zaberian and grandson of Priam.

2. Francus 10. Plaserius II

3. Esdron 11. Antenor I

4. Zelius 12. Trianus or Priam II

5. Basavelian I 13. Helenus II

6. Plaserius I 14. Plesron II

7. Plesron I 15. Basavelian II

8. Eliacor

16. Alexander -- the Paris of the last war against Troy. There were about 17 generations (including Helenus) in somewhat over five centuries or approximately 30 years per generation during this period. Members of the Trojan royal family and most of the population fled to the northern shores of the Black Sea in eastern Europe after 677. For the next two and a third centuries after 677 (the date of the final fall of Troy in a third war) there were the following 12 generations -- averaging about 21 years between generations. None of these men were kings in the strict sense until Antenor, who died in

445. The genealogy of the Jewish Trojan House continues as follows:

1. Priam III, son of 8. Marcomir Alexander or Paris.

2. Gentilanor 9. Priam IV

3. Almadius 10. Helenus IV

4. Dilulius 11. Antenor II, who assumed kingly power among the

5. Helenus III refugees from Troy in Southeastern Europe

6. Plasserius III

7. Dilulius II 12. Marcomir But, before we continue with Marcomir, the son of Antenor, another part of the story should be told. The 8th century anonymous "Frankish Chronicle" (De Rebus Francorum) states that after the fall of Troy in 1181 about 12,000 Trojans fled by ship across the Black Sea to the mouth of the Tanais. From there they spread to the Maeotic Swamps and as far as the borders of Pannonia.

This account agrees very well with the report of Dionysius of Halicarnassus in his "Roman Antiquities," I, 46, 47, who states that after the fall of Troy "... a larger number escaped than were taken prisoner ... the Achaeans, intent on capturing the citadel, were giving no thought to the pursuit of the multitude who were escaping from the city .... Aeneas abandoned the palace; and opening the gates he marched forth with the rest of the fugitives in good order ... they were joined not only by the inhabitants of Dardanus ... but by the whole populace of Ophyrnium .... this force of the Trojans became a very large one." In other words, a large number of people escaped.

Dionysius goes on to state that they obtained permission from the Greeks to travel about unmolested in order to find a new country in which to settle. Aeneas headed to the Greek coast near Thessalonika, and from there southwards to the Mediterranean and Italy. But others took a different route. "... Ascanius, his eldest son, with some of the allies, chiefly Phrygians, (went) to the country of Dascylitis (near the Bosphorus) .... But Ascanius did not tarry there for any length of time ...." He returned to the site of Troy and tried to reestablish the city.

Here Dionysius breaks off the account about Ascanius. We know, however, that Ascanius did not remain at the site of Troy, for Virgil and others report him as being with his father Aeneas in Italy shortly afterwards.

But what of the Phrygian army that was with Ascanius? It did not go with him to Italy. This could be, however, the army of 12,000 which according to the "Chronicle" settled at the mouth of the Danube.

Fredegarius Scholasticus, claiming Jerome as his authority, says that the Trojans fled, some to Macedonia, some to the Danube under a king Friga. Greek historians, like Strabo, generally confirm this exodus to Macedonia, but are silent about Friga. Since this name can mean, in Greek, simply "the Phrygian", this just indicates that the Phrygians, under some obscure Phrygian leader, crossed over to the European shore and settled in Macedonia, Pannonia and near the mouth of the Danube.

Fredegarius, the "Frankish Chronicle" and Hugo of St. Victor all agree with "Smith's Dictionary" in stating that the Phrygians settled in that general area of the Balkans. The Macedonians, according to the latter, called the Phrygians Bryges. Gregory of Tours also states that the Franks were originally in Pannonia.

From the lower Danube and Pannonia the Trojan Phrygians moved on into Europe. Fredegarius and the later "K"nigschronik" both claim that they moved under a king Franko or Francio to the mouth of the Rhine where they built New Troy at Xanten (a rivulet named after Xanthus, the river of Phrygia). That a New Troy was built at Xanten is attested to by the Romans, who called the town of Xanten Troia Nova. (See "Der Grosse Brockhaus," article "Troia Nova".) In the same way Julius Caesar called the Londoners Trinovantes in reference to their city having been founded as New Troy by Brutus.

The original settling of the Franks at the mouth of the Rhine is supported by Procopius: "... the Rhine empties into the ocean ... and this is where the Germans lived of old ... who are now called Franks" (Procopius of Caesarea, "History of the Wars," V, xii, 7, 8). Holland, in other words, was the first home of the Franks in Western Europe.

It is in the region of Scythia Minor that Hunibald, the Frankish chronicler, begins his history. According to him the Trojans, having dwelt in this region for a number of years after the fall of Troy, are finally involved in a series of wars with the Goths from Scandinavia.

In 445 B.C. their leader Antenor falls in battle against the Goths.

From this point in history begins Hunibald's list of Frankish kings.

The Trojans who left Troy in 677 after the Third Trojan War went to the area of the Black Sea where they joined the group that had been led there by Ascanius after the First Trojan War in 1181. Both were Trojans, both went to the northern shores of the Black Sea but, at different times. Both record the same kings as they proceed across Europe.

SICAMBRIAN KINGS

Kings Length of Reign Dates

1. Antenor: a king over Trojan settlers on the Black Sea, himself of royal Trojan blood. Died in 445.

2. Marcomirus I: king of the 28 444- 416 Sicambri (from the German Cimbri in whose ancient territory they settled). In 441 he brought the people out of Scythia and seated them on the Danube. During a council he was told by a pagan priest to go west where Brutus of Troy had previously gone. A pagan prophecy promises him victory over the Gauls and the Romans. Sends embassy to Saxons and asks for land in which to settle.

In April 439 B.C. they leave the lower Danube and move overland, first north, then west, to the mouth of the Rhine. A total of 489,360 persons (including 175,658 warriors but not including slaves and servants) take part. Marcomirus had brothers Priam, Panthenor and Sunno. They settled the country now called West Friesland, Gelders and Holland. Marcomirus crossed the Rhine and conquered part of Gaul. One of his brothers was made governor. Then the conquest of all Gaul was gradually completed.

Marcomirus, according to the "Chronicle of Hunibald", dies 926 years before the death of the first Christian king of the Franks, Clovis, in 511.

3. Antenor I marries Cambra, 30 416- 386 the beautiful daughter of Belinus, king of Britain.

She introduces worship of Janus, establishes herself as prophetess and priestess of Diana. From Cambra the Scythian Trojans begin to call themselves Sicambri.

Antenor's nephew, Grun, builds Gr"ningen in 386 B.C.

Antenor conquered Phrygia -- the original Trojan homeland -- and slew all the males.

(This recalls Judah's punishment of the Edomites, many of whom were now living in Phrygia.) He died in 386 when Artaxerxes Mnemon, king of Persia, having finished the Cyprian War, led an army of 300,000 men against the Cadusians.

4. Priamus: under him Sicambrians 26 386- 360 adopt Saxon language, Greek being retained only by priests for purposes of religious worship. Neumagen, near the mouth of the Rhine, becomes seat of Jupiter worship established by Cambra.

5. Helenus I: he erected an 19 360- 341 oratory to Pallas, whom he worshipped by sacrificing to her captive children.

In 353 he slew 16,000 Gauls (Chaldeans) in battle in the land of the Tungri.

6. Diocles: he has wars with 39 341- 302 both the Gauls and the Goths.

In 331 B.C. Goths from Scania attack Saxons, but are repelled by a combined Sicambro-Saxon force. He aided the Saxons against the Goths in 327. In his absence the Gauls invaded his kingdom.

By the valour of his officers they were expelled, losing 78,000 men, besides captives and children.

7. Helenus II: an effeminate 14 302- 288 individual, unable to ward off attacks of Gauls. He was deposed in 288, after which 8 years of government under priestly rule followed.

8. Bassanus Magnus: the warlike 36 288- 252 brother of Helenus, liked to present an image of self- righteousness. So very severe in his laws that he executed his own son for adultery and put away his wife for reviling him for it, and sent her to her father.

In his eighth year he built many forts against incursions of the Gauls and finally obtained the full kingship in his possession. In his sixteenth year built the city Bassanburg, where many of his successors had their residence.

Trithemius calls this Aix la Chapelle). In 285 B.C, is attacked by father-in-law, king of the Orkneys, but repells him. In 264 B.C. takes over duties as priest of Jupiter, which leads to his ultimate deification as "Theobasan." In 257 B.C. leads a successful campaign as far south as Koblenz. At this time Heligastus, the great prophet of the Sicambri, flourished.

Bassanus later conquered from the Saxons all the country from the entrance of the Rhine to Mentz. In year 29 he slew Thaborinus, king of the Togazani (now Westphalians). He put his son on the throne in 252 and then disappeared.

9. Clodomir I: in his third 18 252- 234 year the Gauls demanded restitution of their lands.

Clodomir overcame them by the aid of the king of Thuringia and Saxony.

10. Nicanor: married 34 234- 200 Constantina, daughter of king of Britain. In his first year he aided the Saxons against the Slavs and Goths and returned with much spoil. In his third year he aided his father-in-law against the king of the Orcades. In 222 B.C. Sicambrians, Saxons and Thuringians defeat the Goths. In year 15 he was defeated by the Goths from Scandinavia, but afterwards expelled them.

In 215 B.C. he aided the king of Britain in a war against the Orkneys, but was unsuccessful because of lack of experience in warfare on the sea.

11. Marcomirus II: successfully 28 200- 172 attacked the Romans, Gauls, Goths in his first year. In his fifth year he commanded the acts of the Gauls to be written in rhyme and sung by the bards.

12. Clodius I: in his tenth 11 172- 161 year the Romans and Gauls wasted his country.

Being next year aided by the Saxons, he defeated them, but fell himself in the battle.

13. Antenor II: he concluded 16 161- 145 a peace with the Gauls for ten years and abolished the Trojan custom of sacrificing his enemies' children.

14. Clodomirus II: in his 20 145- 125 tenth year the Gauls broke the peace. They were overcome in 125, the last year of his reign.

15. Merodachus: in his fifth 28 125- 97 year he levied an army of 220,000 of his own people with Saxons and Germans and entered Italy as far as Ravenna. In his fifteenth year, because of several inundations of the sea and the Rhine, the Sicambri and Cimbri were forced to transplant themselves to the interior -- the Hercynian Forest -- about modern Bohemia. In his twentieth year the Romans and Gauls invaded their territories and set the Goths and Slavs on the Saxons that they might not aid the Sicambri. In year 23 (102-101) the Sicambri joined the Cimbri in a war against Rome. They were all defeated by Marius.

After this defeat Merodachus, with a fresh army, marched against the Gauls, gave them a great defeat and settled again in their old country.

16. Cassander: in his second 21 97- 76 year the Romans and Gauls entered his kingdom. In his ninth year he aided Arabius, king of the Saxons, against Berobista, king of the Goths, who after five years again invaded Germany.

Cassander, aided by Damercus king of the Thuringi, expelled the Goths.

17. Antharius: in his 35 76- 41 twentieth year some of Caesar's soldiers revolted to the Sicambri, who refused to deliver them up at Caesar's demand.

Caesar, in revenge, entered their country and marched all the way to Britain 55-54. In 41 Antharius and 2000 of his men were slain by the Gauls. He was the last "King of the Sicambri".

Hereafter the Sicambri were called Franks or Franconians after the name of his son and successor, Francus.

THE KINGS OF THE FRANKS

18. Francus marries a pagan 28 41- 13 priestess, daughter of king of Thuringia. In his third year the Goths encroached upon the country and remained there for ten years, after which Francus expelled them. In the fourth year the name of Sicambri was changed to Franci by an edict at the people's request. The next year, being at war with the Goths, the Gauls wasted his dominions. As punishment he levied an army of 300,000 men and invading their country took much spoil and killed 200,000 people of all sexes and ages. The Romans hearing of this victory sent Lollius with forces into Germany.

A long struggle with Rome followed. He made a league with the Germans and Saxons after their Roman allies were defeated.

19. Clodius II or Clogio: 30 B.C. 13- 18 A.D.

an astronomer and diviner.

This king of the Franconians fought the Romans in his second year.

20. Herimerus: he was slain 12 18- 30 in battle by Romans and Gauls.

21. Marcomirus III: a 18 30- 48 brother of Herimerus.

Phrysius, a brother of Marcomirus was governor of Frisia.

22. Clodomirus III: he 12 48- 60 devastated northern Gaul in 55 A.D. He recovered all that his predecessors had lost and fought with the Romans near Mentz and wasted the country of Triers.

23. Antenor III: he drowns in 6 60- 66 the Rhine with much of his army while retreating from Gaul.

24. Ratherius: he renewed 21 66- 87 the league with the Germans and Saxons in 74. He founded Rotterdam and was buried there.

25. Richimerus I: he was 24 87- 111 strongly religious and even became a pagan high priest. In 97 he repelled a Gothic attack on Saxony. He sent 18,000 settlers under son Sunno into Saxony to secure it against Goths. He fought with the Romans and Gauls near Basana (now Aix-la- Chapelle) in 99. He received aid of Winderchind, king of the Saxons, and Verminfrid, king of the Thuringi, in 101. He opposed the Goths who invaded Germany. The Franks, Germans and Saxons planted colonies in that part of Germany, which is now called Brandenburg, in 106.

26. Odomar: made a league with 14 111- 125 the Romans and Gauls. Founder of Utrecht and builder of Odemarsheim in 117.

27. Marcomirus IV:marries 21 125- 146 Athilde, daughter of the king of Britain His son, Frank, builds Helenopolis (Frankfort), another son becomes pagan priest. He rebuilt Marburg in the Landgraviate of Hesse.

28. Clodomirus IV:marries 17 146- 163 Hasilda, daughter of the king of Rugen.

29. Farabertus: he renewed the 20 163- 183 ancient league with the Germans. In his reign the Dutch (Niederl"nder) are first mentioned.

30. Sunno or Hunno:warred 28 183- 211 with the Romans and Gauls.

Upon the death of the Emperor Severus, in 211, he entered Gaul and wasted it with fire and sword.

31. Hildericus: he built a 40 211- 251 castle on an isle in the Rhine and called it Hildeburg,

214. Introduced a period of cultural and architectural expansion.

32. Bartherus: the Franks 18 251- 269 attacked in 256 -- the year the last Odin invaded Saxony and led many of the tribes of Israel to northwestern Europe. Raids of Franks, Thuringians and Bavarians continue to 259 in Gaul and Italy. In 262 Franks and Saxons carry a raid as far south as Tarragona, which they besiege. They spoiled Italy, as far as Ravenna, 264 and razed the town of Aragon to the ground, 267.

33. Clodius III or Clogio: 27 269- 296 in 283 he entered Gaul, and having slain many Romans, recovered some of that which he had formerly lost. But, the Romans again expelled him in 289.

34. Walter 8 296- 304

35. Dagobertus I 11 304- 315

36. Clodius IV or Clogio: 2 315- 317 the Romans and Gauls invaded Franconia in 317. Clogio was slain in battle.

37. Clodomirus V: brother of 18 317- 335 Clogio IV. Sends in 322 A.D. 30,000 colonists to river Main and establishes Dukedom of Franconia which survives under 21 Dukes till Pepin the Short. He aided the Sarmata against the Romans, of whom he slew 36,000 in 321. The Franks were now permitted to resettle themselves where Holland, Utrecht, Gelders, part of Friesia, Westphalia and Brabant now lie. The Franks now split, the East Franks settling in Germany.

Their dukes are listed later.

38. Richimir II: opposed 13 335- 348 Constantius with 200,000 men in 342. He fought with the Romans and was slain in battle in 348.

39. Theodomirus: makes Tongres 10 348- 358 his capital, attacks and burns Trier. Was taken by the Emperor Julian, who slew him and his mother.

40. Clodius V or Clogio: to 18 358- 376 revenge his father's death he took Cambray, slew many Romans, entered Gaul and annexed much of it (as far as the Sagon River) to his dominions. In 369 Valentinian I defeats him by surprise attack. Pepin and Charlemagne are descended from this king's third son, Hector.

41. Marcomirus V: the last 15 376- 391 "King of the Franks" until reign of Pharamund. He obtained a great victory over the Romans at Cologne in 382 and recovered all that the Emperor had possessed, except Armorica or Little Brittany, in 390. He was slain in battle in 391. The Romans overpowered the Franks, commanded them to elect no more kings but dukes, in the reign of Theodosius the Great.

42. Dagobert II: appointed 5 391- 396 governor (not king) after the death of Marcomirus, refuses Romans tribute. Valentinian II admires courage of Franks, is unable to retaliate because otherwise occupied and finally killed by Arbogast a Frank.

43. Genebaldus: also a mere 21 396- 417 governor, dies without heir.

44. Pharamundus: he is the 7 417- 424 5th duke of Franconia and was elected king.

45. Clodius VI: teaches Franks 20 424- 444 to wear hair long to distinguish them from Gauls.

46. Meroveus: after whom 12 444- 456 Franks were called Merovingians Takes Trier, makes great gains in Gaul.

47. Hildericus II: this 1 455- 456 appears to have been a joint year with Meroveus, his father. At death of Meroveus the son was deposed by Egidius and rebellious nobles. Hildericus II flees to Thuringia.

Egidius: a Roman, set up 3 456- 459 by nobles in place of Hildericus. He was deposed.

Hildericus: reinstated. 22 459- 481

48. Clodoveus or Clovis: 30 481- 511 accepts Roman Catholic religion. Baptized in 496 A.D.

DUKES OF THE EAST FRANKS

Duke Length of Reign Dates

1. Genebald I: brother of 30 322- 352 Clodomlr IV, migrated with East Franks to the upper Rhine and became their first duke.

2. Marcomer 21 352- 373

3. Claudius 10 373- 383

4. Marcomer II 16 383- 399

5. Pharamund became king of 15 399- 414 the West Franks in 417. He is reckoned by early historians as the first king of France. In 424 the succession passed to Clodion who founded the Merovingian Dynasty. Its kings all wore long hair.

They kept their kingly office until the Pope suggested to the East Franks (Germans)

that they could gain the power over the Merovingians by cutting the king's hair.

The last Merovingian was accordingly tonsured. The government thereafter passed to Pippin, father of the German king Charlemagne, who restored the Roman Empire in the west in 800. The history of the Merovingians, who descended from the Trojan line and the house of Judah, is made especially interesting in a book entitled "The Long-haired Kings," by J. M. Wallace-Hadrill. (See especially chapter 7.)

The Merovingians recognized that though they came from Judah, they were not of the throne of David and would hold their power only so long as they kept a Nazarite tradition -- long hair -- symbolizing their subjection to a Higher Power -- God -- who rules supreme among men. (See Numbers 6.)

6. Marcomer III: Pharamund 14 with 414- 428 ruled in Franconia or Pharamund East Frankland 399-414; he ruled all France from 4 sole reign 428- 432 417 till 424. Marcomer III, Pharamund's brother, ruled in Franconia until Pharamund died in 428 (see "Mirror of History").

7. Priamus 12 432- 444

8. Genebaldt II 20 444- 464

9. Sunno 23 464- 487

10. Clodius II: a West Frank, 16 487- 503 became duke of the East Franks (Germans).

11. Clodomir 21 503- 524

12. Hugbald 26 524- 550

13. Helenus 30 550- 580

14. Gottfried 24 580- 604

15. Genebaldt III 20 604- 624

16. Clodomir II 23 624- 647

17. Heribert 30 647- 677

18. Clodoueus III 12 677- 689

19. Grosswert 26 689- 715

20. Gosspert 14 715- 729

21. Hetan 20 729- 749 Interregnum under Pepin 12 749- 761 The succeeding history of the Franks is so well known and thoroughly documented as to be everywhere available. Hunibald's chronicle helps clear up misunderstandings about the Franks presented by the incomplete accounts of other medieval writers.

Tyro Prosper (Augustine's friend), for instance, contradicts practically every other ancient historian by stating that the first king of the Franks was Priam, the father of Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald, who lived around 382 A.D. This Priam was none other than Dagobert II (391-396). Priam was another of Dagobert's names. Dagobert had three sons Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald. He was the first governor (i.e. first ruler of lower rank than king) of the Franks. Tyro Prosper obviously did not have all his facts straight.

Another great misconception about the Franks is an alleged migration from Pannonia in the days of emperor Valentinian. The "Frankish Chronicle" and Hugo of St. Victor both state that Caesar Valentinian attempted to exact tribute from the Franks living in Pannonia, after these had helped him defeat the Alani. The Franks, refusing to pay, were eventually forced to leave Pannonia and settle at the mouth of the Rhine.

Some loopholes in this story are immediately evident. First of all, Roman history is silent about any dealings with the Franks or other Germans in Pannonia in the days of Valentinian. Secondly, Valentinian I was emperor in the West, and died in an expedition against the Quadi. He was never active in the East. The same is true for Valentinian II, in whose reign the co-emperor Theodosius defeated a league of Huns, Goths and Alans in Moesia. This incident may possibly be partly responsible for the story that the Franks helped Valentinian to defeat the Alans.

Hunibald again comes to our aid. He informs us that both the Valentinians fought against the Franks in the West, not in Pannonia.

Valentinian I fought against Clogio V in 369. It was Valentinian II, in the West, who tried to impose the tribute on the Franks in the reigns of Marcomirus V and Dagobert II. The chroniclers probably confused Priam (Dagobert II) and his sons Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald, with the original migration from Pannonia under Marcomir I and his brothers Priam, Panthenor and Sunno. As a result of this confusion, the migration was misplaced by some 700 years. Again, this just serves to demonstrate how valuable Hunibald's account is in presenting us with the true picture.

There is a bit of difficulty regarding the name Sicambri by which the Franks were for a while known. Hunibald states that it was derived from Cambra, the wife of Antenor I. The "Frankish Chronicle," Hugo of St. Victor and Aethicus Hister maintain, on the other hand, that Sicambria was a city near the shore of the Black Sea and that from it the people were called Sicambri.

Aethicus Hister, the Scythian geographer of c. 650 A.D., relates in his "Cosmographia" the interesting fact that Caracalla -- whom he calls Romulus -- encountered some Franks in the vicinity of Troy in 214 A.D. Aethicus states that after occupying the area of Troy (see also Dio's "Roman History" 78.16.7) Caracalla "fought with Francus and Vassus, who were of royal descent, and they were defeated .... For Francus and Vassus had concluded an alliance with the Albani (Goths)

and they were both moving their armies against Romulus (Caracalla); they crossed Histria (the region of Istria on the Dalmatian coast) ....

After the most bloody encounter Romulus defeated them. When Francus and Vassus saw that their armies had been cut down they fled with a few who remained ... the land was ruined, laid waste and reduced to desolation; they were driven from their own belongings and together with a few companions ... entered Raetia and reached uninviting and deserted Germany ..." Here we have a small group of Franks moving into Germany. Could this be where the chroniclers mentioned earlier got their idea of a migration under a Francus?

A little later Franks again appear on the lower Danube, but this time as settlers actually brought in from Germany by Probus (276-281).

Zosimus relates in his History: "But the Franks having applied to the Emperor, and having a country given to them, a part of them afterwards revolted, and having collected a great number of ships, disturbed all Greece; from whence they proceeded into Sicily, to Syracuse, which they attacked, and killed many people there. At length they arrived in Africa, whence they were repulsed by a body of men from Carthage, yet they returned home (to the Rhine) without any great loss" (Book I).

This adventurous excursion is also mentioned by Vopiscus and Capitolinus.

Hunibald's Chronicle is from Johannes Trittenheim, "Chronik von der Francken Ursprung," Frankfurt, 1605.

THE HAPSBURGS ENTER

What connection have the Austrian Hapsburgs with the Trojan kings of the East Franks? Much more than historians today recognize. From Pharamond, king of the Franks, came a princely line of rulers who intermarried with Austrian royalty. This line is preserved in the "Historia de Xerez" by Gutierrez, From Pharamond descended: Clodion Merovius Childeric Clodovius Clotarius, whose son Sigibert became a king in Austria Sigibert Childubert, king of Austrasia and Burgundy Theodobert, king of Austrasia Ligibert, duke of Austrasia Othobert, count of Altemburg Amprinetus Hectobert Rampert Guntramus I Luiffridus I Luiffridus II Hundifridus Gumtramus II Bertus Rapatus, whose son became count of Hapsburg Werner, count of Hapsburg Otho Werner II Werner III Albert I Rudolf I Albert II Rudolf II: of Hapsburg, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1273.

THE DUKES OF GAUL

At the end of the First Trojan War in 1181 still another group left Troy. These Trojans were led by Franco the son of Hector. The story of their migration to Gaul is extant. It is found in a medieval French chronicle -- "Le Myreur d'Histoire" ("The Mirror of History"). This line of rulers is preserved from France to Clovis.

(NOTE: To view the chart placed here, see the file CMPDM2E.TIF in the Images\OtherWCG directory.)

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Franco I: he left Troy 10 1181-1171 with Aeneas and Antenor. They sailed to Sizille (probably Sicily). Franco traveled to Italy and North Africa. Then with 3,000 of his followers he settled in southern Gaul.

They called the area Franche. The people were sons of Franco or Franchois. After his death they were known as Gauls.

2. Melus: a son of Franco. 51 1171-1120 He rebuilds Troy in 1145.

His daughter, Odela, married Silvius the king of Italy.

3. Bosses: a son of Melus. 24 1120-1096 He defeated Ascanius, king of Italy, in a battle. Bosses later married Grata the daughter of Ascanius. This may have settled the dispute between them.

4. Ector I: he was the 16 1096-1080 grandson of Broncus.

Broncus was a son of Silvius and Odela. Ector founded Troy in Burgogne.

5. Alemaine: son of Bosses. 22 1080-1058 He conquered all Germany and fortified many cities.

Allemania, a section of Germany, derives its name from him.

6. Castor: founds the city 30 1058-1028 of Castre. Died in a fight with Silvius, king of Italy.

7. Ylion I 40 1028- 988

8. Alienoir 28 988- 960

9. Gossain 12 960- 948 10 Ector II 19 948- 929

11. Athanaise 21 929- 908

12. Franco II: married 10 908- 898 Ydoneas the daughter of Agrippa king of the Latins.

13. Yborus I: son of Franco II 15 898- 883 and Ydoneas. He had a war with his cousin, the king of Italy. Founded Lutesse. 14 Anthenoire I 17 883- 866

15. Yolens: he conquered 43 866- 823 Cyprus.

16. Prian I 26 823- 797

17. Yborus II: he repelled 22 797- 775 two attacks on Gaul from Amulius king of the Latins. His daughter, Oderne, married Gaffre the king of Africa. After Yborus died Amulius married his widow.

18. Ector III 50 775- 725

19. Ylion II: he founded 40 725- 685 Limoges.

20. Nay: he founded Turnay. 34 685- 651

21. Alymodes: he married the 74 651- 577 daughter of a Roman senator. He was victorious in a war with the Roman king Priscus. One of his children, Aquitaine, gave his name to the region in France.

22. Orlins (Aurelian): built 54 577- 523 and gave his name to Orleans.

23. Avrengnas: Auvergne 14 523- 509 derives its name from this ruler.

24. Yborus III 40 509- 469

25. Frisones: Frise in 28 469- 441 Champagne is named after him.

26. Flambo: the Gauls took 48 441- 393 Rome as far as the capitol during his rule.

27. Flandroc 33 393- 360

28. Turrus (Turnus): founded 59 360- 301 Tours. That section of France called "Touraine" derives its name from him.

29. Brugen: Bruges was 25 301- 276 founded by him. His brother Amyrus founded Amiens.

30. Duanus (Duaynus) 16 276- 260

31. Camberacion: founded 55 260- 205 Cambray.

32. Bretanges: Brittany is 10 205- 195 named after him.

33. Cletus 22 195- 173

34. Franco III: he joined the 53 173- 120 Flemish and Burgundians against Rome. The Romans under Scipio were defeated.

35. Prians II 56 120- 64

36. Yborus IV: Julius Caesar 40 64- 24 invaded Gaul and took Paris while he ruled.

37. Franco IV 28 B.C. 24- 5 A.D.

38. Trojolus (Troielus) I 29 5- 34

39. Cloberius (Cloveius) 45 34- 79

40. Ector IV: he defeated the 47 79- 126 Romans and captured Emperor Domitian.

41. Franco V: he was made 25 126- 151 duke of the Gauls by the Sicambrians.

42. Anthenoir II: he was duke 31 151- 182 of Gaul and count of Flanders.

43. Ector V 5 182- 187

44. Franco VI 8 187- 195

45. Troiolus II 27 195- 222

46. Marcones I: wars were 44 222- 266 fought in which the Romans lost nearly 30,000 soldiers.

47. Ector VI; the Germans 16 266- 282 held Paris for a short time.

48. Porus: Diocletian was 19 282- 301 defeated by the dukes of Gaul and Brittany. Martin Bishop of Tongre baptized Porus.

49. Marcones (Merones) II 32 301- 333

50. Anthenoir III 10 333- 343

51. Ector VII 1 343- 344

52. Prian III 32 344- 376

53. Marchones III under regent 7 376- 383 joint with son 34 383- 417 sole (31) (383- 414)

KINGS OF FRANCE

1. Pharamond 11 417- 428

2. Clodius 20 428- 448

3. Meroveux 10 448- 458

4. Celdris 23 458- 481

5. Cloveis 30 481- 511 These are kings after Marcomirus V (376-391). Compare this list with that from the "Chronicle of Hunibald."

IN RETROSPECT

Historians would have us believe that Western Europe was inhabited by wild and barbarian Celts and Germans while Rome flourished in power and glory. But, the evidence proves that civilized people migrated to Gaul and the Low Countries centuries before the founding of Rome. In 1181 Troy fell to the Greek invaders. Franco, a son of Hector, fled to Southern Gaul. His group was later known as Gauls. Caesar subdued them during campaigns in Aquitania and Provence.

Bavo and his followers arrived in Belgica in 1179. They were known as Belgians or Batavians. Another migration leaving in 1181 was led by Francus. They ultimately reached Celtica. The Celts lost their independence to Ursus (Belgian king) in 766. In 52 Caesar conquered both Gaul and Belgium.

Francio began a movement which eventually settled in Pannonia. One of their rulers, Brabon Silvius, was given Agrippina by Julius Caesar.

In 378 A.D. Gratian drove the Sicambrians out of Pannonia. Maximus allowed them to migrate to Brabant. Clodius, king of the Franks, annexed Brabant. Thus, Brabon became a servant and Brabant a dukedom.

Trojans under Ascanius (1181) and Alexander (677) joined each other on the Danube. The trek across Europe began in 445. By 439 they reached the mouth of the Rhine. The Sicambrian and Frankish kings ruled the Trojans there. During the reign of Clodomirus V (317-335) the Franks split (East and West). Marcomirus V was the last king of the Franks until Pharamund.

CHAPTER XIII -- HISTORY OF SWEDEN AND THE SAXONS

The Swedes, too, have a remarkable history which modern critical historians have largely rejected. Rejected, not because the historians have disproved the facts, but because they simply do not want to believe the records. Who today would believe that there was an Odin? -- a god who made his appearance among the Swedes and Saxons? The idea would be laughed out of school because there were no gods! It seems never to have occurred to historians that" the heathen would have called a flesh-and-blood king a god -- and deified him.

Has the twentieth century already forgotten a man named Hitler whom the German Propaganda Minister Goebbels called "Mein Fuehrer und mein Gott" -- "My Fuehrer and my God"?

THE RECORDS SPEAK

Let Swedish history speak for itself. The early chronicles and sagas of the Scandinavians reveal a remarkable story. The regnal lists give us the time setting The story they have to tell does not agree with the modern concept of northern barbarians who had no sense of history until perhaps nine or ten centuries after the Christian Era. History writers have been so enamored of Rome that any record not preserved by the Romans is looked upon as unhistorical. What is unhistorical is the view that the Romans preserved all that merits the name history. Rome did not preserve. Rome destroyed. And anyway, of what interest would the history of Scandinavia have been to Roman circus-lovers?

In the Middle Ages Swedish writers began the process of digesting the mass of information preserved in their early chronicles and sagas.

Among them the name Bertius should be especially named.

Bertius' "History of Sweden" has been in part, though not altogether correctly, summarized by James Anderson in his "Royal Genealogies." The early history of Scandinavia is a remarkable confirmation of the Biblical record and of the early history of the German and Mediterranean peoples. It begins with the story of the dispersal of the families of the earth by Noah. It was this God-decreed event against which Nimrod rebelled. Why should people not be free to go where they pleased? After all this was their earth! Or so he thought.

From Persian and Italian history it has already been determined that the migration to various parts of the world began in 2261. Swedish chronicles trace the history of this migration and of the peoples who have since inhabited Scandinavia. The story opens with the migration of Magog out of the region of Ararat or Armenia.

The family of Magog at first settled in the vast reaches of the Eurasian steppes. From there most of his descendants spread north and east through Bactria and Turkestan into Mongolia and China. A few spread northwest -- by 2260, says Bertius -- into the North Russian plains and the lands bordering on the Baltic. At this very day may be found a semi-Mongoloid people -- the Lapps -- inhabiting the Scandinavian Arctic with their reindeer. Sweden was also inhabited in early times by Goths -- whom all writers admit were the children of Gether, the son of Aram. Now notice the chronological record of these early events from Bertius outlined here:

1. Magog 43 2260-2217

2. Suevus or Sweno, the older 56 2217-2161 brother of Gether. His Biblical name is Uz, the father of the Suevonians, Ausonians and Sitonians (see Gen. 10:23).

3. Gether, younger son of Aram 60 2161-2101

4. Ubbo, who settled Upsal 101 2101-2000 Significantly, the date 2101 also brings Noah into Italy again. The year 2000 is the time of the division of Europe by Tuisto, king of the Germans.

5. Siggo 10 2000-1990 Danish history declares that from this date -- 1990 -- Scandinavia, and in particular Denmark, had Judges, rather than kings, who governed for the space of 950 years. It was exactly 950 years until 1040 and the coming of king Odin -- Danus I of Denmark (see Danish history).

Swedish history continues with names of famous Scandinavian Judges -- in some cases they assumed the royal title. Bertius lists them as follows:

6. Eric I, began in 1990 11. Biorn I

7. Uddo 12. Gethar II

8. Ale 13. Siggo II

9. Osten I 14. Berich or Eric

10. Karl or Charles I

MIGRATION OUT OF SWEDEN

Berich became king in 1511 according to Bertius. He ruled the Goths 40 years. According to Jordanus, the historian of the Goths, Berich led them out of Scandinavia to the Middle East. This is also the period of the sudden appearance in Mesopotamia of the Gothic people -- the Guti. (At that time, as in later days, the Goths were widely scattered. Many had settled in the regions of Bactria northeast of Mesopotamia; others had been in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia.) Berich or Eric appears in Greece in the Athenian list of kings. There his name is Erichthonius He came to power in Athens the year of the Exodus -- 1487.

After Berich, Bertius' Swedish history preserves only one other name -- the fifteenth in order -- Humulf. He is called the successor of Berich. Swedish history does not pick up again until the time of Humble, son of Danus I of Denmark.

At this point in Swedish history Bertius has placed his list upwards of between two and three centuries too early. His confusion arose from misunderstanding who Danus I of Denmark was. There was an earlier Danus -- in the 1200's. He led the Tuatha De Danaan (who had come from Greece in the time of Jabin king of Canaan) from Scandinavia to Scotland and then into Ireland. That Danus was not Danus I of Denmark.

RENEWED MIGRATION

Swedish history recommences after the period of judges, just after the time of Danus I. Danus led a Hebrew-Trojan migration to Northwestern Europe. Properly restored from a comparison with contemporary Danish history, Bertius' list of Swedish rulers should appear as follows:

16. Humble, son of Danus I (8) (999- 991) of Denmark. The figure and date at the right are from Danish history Bertius gives no figure.

17. Gothlias (40) (991- 951)

18. Sigtaug 33 951- 918

19. Scarin 40 918- 878

20. Suibdager, king of Norway. 60 878- 818 He ruled Denmark for 40 years

21. Hasmund, son of Suibdager 48 818- 770

22. Uffo, son of Hasmund 44 770- 726

23. Hunding 48 726- 678

24. Regner, son of Hunding and 29 678- 649 younger brother-in-law of Frotho I of Denmark.

25. Hotobrod, son of Regner 65 678- 613 He was associated with his father on the throne during a period of Danish domination of Sweden.

26. Atilla I 49 613- 564

27. Hothar, king of Sweden and 78 564- 486 Denmark Hothar is usually dated 527-485 in Danish history. And his son Roric in Denmark is given 49 years -- 485- 436, But the list of Danish kings in "Historisch -- und Geographisches" Lexicon by Jacob Iselin, art. "Danemarck," assigns 50 years to Roric -- 486-436. This confirms the Swedish dating. The year 486-485 was the climax of a Danish revolt against Hotobrod.

28. Roric 84 520- 436 He reigned jointly with his father for many years, while his father governed Denmark.

29. Attila II, or Atisle 30 436- 406

30. Botwildus, son of Attila II 42 406- 364

31. Charles II 48 364- 316

32. Gramus -- 316- From here on there is no record of the lengths of reign of any Swedish ruler until the time of Augustus Caesar. The political divisions of the country probably acknowledged no supreme ruler over the whole of the land. Only the following list of names is recorded for the intervening period.

33. Tordo I

34. Gotharus

35. Adolphus, son of Gotharus

36. Algodus I

37. Erich II

38. Lindornus, son of Eric II

39. Alrich or Abric He became king of Sweden in the days of Augustus Caesar. Following his murder Eric III ascended the throne.

40. Eric III 22 18 B.C. to A.D. 5 Bertius gives the longer (or 79) 75 B.C. to A.D. 5 figure, which must indicate that a lengthy struggle for the kingship occurred in the days of Alrich and Eric. Hereafter there is a consecutive list of kings. The political stability of Sweden returned.

Swedish history now continues to the time of Njord or Nearch -- 256. The following list of Swedish kings may be readily found in James Anderson's "Royal Genealogies." Unfortunately the author failed to take note of no Year 0. Consequently all these Swedish kings are dated one year too early! The corrected dates are below.

41. Godrich 30 5- 35

42. Haldan I 36 35- 71

43. Filmer 14 71- 85

44. Nordian 16 85- 101

45. Siward I 31 101- 132

46. Charles II 38 132- 170

47. Erich IV 12 170- 182 48, Haldan II (Bergiamus), 13 182- 195 died without heir

49. Unguin 9 195- 204 He ruled Denmark 146-155. He came to the Swedish throne in his old age.

50. Ragwald 17 204- 221

51. Amund I 5 221- 226

52. Haron 9 226- 235

53. Siward II 6 235- 241

54. Ingo I, Gylfe 6 241- 247 Odin appears in his day.

55. Nearch or Njord 9 247- 256

DYNASTY OF YNGLING

56. Froda or Frey called Yngve 2 256- 258

57. Urbarus 5 258- 263

58. Ostevus 1 263- 264

59. Fiolmus 10 264- 274

60. Swercher I 5 274- 279

61. Waland or Vanland 4 279- 283 The Yngling family began to reign in 256, the year Saxon history (which will appear at the end of this chapter) brings the family of Odin to Northwestern Europe. The people whom Odin brought originally came from Asaheim -- the home or land of God ("the gods" in pagan Swedish terminology). Many writers have placed the migration of this period three centuries too early. They have confused another Odin -- Danus III (146-77) -- with this later Odin.

62. Wisbur 6 283- 289

63. Domalder 19 289- 308

64. Domar 7 308- 315

65. Attila III 22 315- 337

66. Dignerus or Dygve 5 337- 342

67. Dagerus or Dag 24 342- 366

68. Alricus 2 366- 368

69. Ingemarus I 11 368- 379

70. Ingelderus 4 379- 383

71. Germundus 5 383- 388

72. Hakon 12 388- 400

73. Egilus 6 400- 406

74. Gotharus or Ottar 16 406- 422

75. Fasto 6 422- 428

76. Gumundus 6 428- 434

77. Adelus 4 434- 438

78. Osten II 16 438- 454

79. Ingemarus II 2 454- 456

80. Holstenus 5 456- 461

81. Biornus II 4 461- 465

82. Ragwaldus II 17 465- 482

83. Swartmannus 28 482- 510

84. Tordo II 1 510- 511

85. Rodulf 17 511- 528

86. Hatinus 21 528- 549

87. Attila IV 16 549- 565

88. Tordo III 18 565- 583

89. Algodus 24 583- 607

90. Godstagus 24 607- 631

91. Arthus 19 631- 650

92. Hakon II 21 650- 671

93. Charles IV 6 671- 677

94. Charles V 9 677- 686

95. Borgerus 15 686- 701

96. Eric V 17 701- 718

97. Tordo IV 47 718- 765

98. Biorn III 16 765- 781

99. Alaric II 33 781- 814

100. Biorn IV 11 814- 825

101. Bratemunder 3 825- 828

102. Siward III 15 828- 843

103. Heroth 14 843- 857

104. Charles VI 12 857- 869

105. Biorn V 15 869- 884

106. Ingold 8 884- 892

107. Claus I 9 892- 901

108. Ingo II 7 901- 908

109. Eric VI 19 908- 927

110. Eric VII 14 927- 941

111. Eric VIII 40 941- 981

112. Olaus II, the Lap-king 38 981-1019

113. Amund II 21 1019-1040

114. Amund III 2 1040-1042

115. Hakon Ruffus 13 1042-1055

DYNASTY OF STENKIL

116. Stenchil 5 1055-1060

117. Ingo II, first Christian 5 1060-1065 king of Sweden and Gothland.

118. Halsten 16 1065-1081

119. Philip 30 1081-1111

120. Aquin or Ingo IV 19 1111-1130 Ingo is said to have been poisoned in 1125. A struggle for the throne ensued. As there was no direct male heir of the house of Stenkil, the descendants on the female side of the family claimed right to rule.

121. Ragnald, king of the Upper Swedes during period of confusion.

122. Mangus I, a Danish prince, 4 1130-1134 king of West Gothland

123. Swecher II, chosen in 1133, began to reign in 1134 (see "Encyclopaedia Britannica," eleventh edition, art. "Sweden"). Most thorough histories on Sweden are complete and accurate from this period. A helpful work to consult is the "History of Sweden" by Cronholm. Some dates may vary because the end of reign does not always mark the date of death.

SAXON HISTORY

Saxon history is intimately tied to the history of Denmark and especially Sweden. The Saxon throne in England today goes back to the same royal lines that anciently governed Denmark and Sweden. Each ultimately stems from the Jewish Trojan House of Darda or Dardanus. Let us pick up our investigation of this Jewish royal family that came from Troy to Denmark under Odin or Danus I in 1040. In the chapter on Danish history the records of Iceland and Phoenicia proved that Jacob or Israel was the ancestor of the ancient Trojan royal house.

From Israel the line descended through Judah and Zarah to Dardanus.

Dardanus carved out an important inheritance for himself at Troy. The lineage of Dardanus is brought down after the first fall of Troy for several generations to Sceaf or Odin (Danus) in the Icelandic records.

From the Danish royal house the following branch sprang, giving rise to the Saxon royal house that today governs England.

This collateral line is preserved in the old "Saxon Chronicle" and in the Icelandic Langfedgatal. Spellings vary slightly, and not every generation is recorded in each.

For that matter neither did Matthew record every generation of Jesus' lineage. This list commences with Shem, son of Noah and continues with Sceaf or Odin I (1040-999) Beu Beadwig Gearwa Wala Fingondwelf Hathra Frederewelf Itermond Freolf Heremod Fredewald Celdwa Woden (256-300)

This Odin -- only a part of whose ancestors appear above -- is a famous hero in all Scandinavian literature His fame rests upon having led a vast multitude from the Near East, on the borders of the Roman Empire, to Northwest Europe. The real name of Woden was Bodo. He is found also listed among the early princes of Saxony The following list preserves the traditional chronology and genealogy of Bodo's immediate ancestors who ruled the Saxons to the time of Bodo the Woden.

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Kings Over the Saxons Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Harderich 93 90 B.C. to A.D. 4

2. Anserich 4 4- 8

3. Wilke I 22 8- 30

4. Svarticke I 46 30- 76

5. Svarticke II 4 76- 80

6. Sigward 20 80- 100

7. Witekind I 6 100- 106

8. Wilke II 84 106- 190

9. Marbod 66 190- 256

10. Bodo or Woden 44 256- 300 His queen was named Frea. From Bodo sprang, among many others, the following princes after 300:

11. Witte I 50 300- 350

12. Witte II 50 350- 400

13. Witigislus 34 400- 434

14. Hengist 14 434- 448 Hengist traditionally sailed to England in 449 and established several sons on thrones over the various divisions of the Anglo-Saxons. They finally united into the single royal house that now, through many intermarriages, rules the British Isles. In his continental realm Hengist left his son Hartwaker who ruled 32 years -- 448-480. The line continued in Saxony in Germany until Witekind II, the Great -- 768-785.

Witekind was conquered by Charlemagne in 785.

CHAPTER XIV -- THE HISTORY OF ARABIA

Arabia may be blanketed by arid plateaus and inhospitable deserts. But Arabia is also a vast land inhabited by many different tribes. Few have ever compared it with Europe. Many of the great nations of Europe would be lost in Arabia's solitudes. Arabia also has its past history -- one which joins together and confirms the accounts of neighboring nations. Arabia borders -- by land and sea -- on Mesopotamia and Persia, on Syria and Palestine and on Egypt and Ethiopia. Whatever happened in the heartland of the ancient world inevitably affected the trade routes of Arabia.

WHO WERE THE FIRST ARABS?

The most famous name in Arabian history is that of Ishmael. Ishmael, Abram and Hagar's son, is the progenitor of most of the Arab world. Then why are not the people called Ishmaelites today? Why do we not call the peninsula of Arabia the peninsula of Ishmael? How did Ishmaelites acquire the designation Arab? Answer: the land was already known as Arabia before Ishmael was born!

The word Arab is derived from the Hebrew root "arab." It means evening, dusk, and also sterile (desert). The vast arid land of Arabia lay immediately to the west and south of Babylonia from whence human beings spread after Babel. It was only natural that they should call the land which lay to the west Arabia. As they migrated in Arabia they called the land to the south Yemen. Yemen means right and south (cf. the Biblical Ben-jamin) -- because in the Middle East people face east (not north) in defining directions.

Any who dwelt in this vast peninsula came to be known as Arabs. In fact, one of the earliest heroes in Arabia came to be known simply as Yarab -- the Arabian. His real name was Jerah, the son of Joktan. And with him we open the history of Arabia.

A simple account of Arabian history may be found in "Universal History," Vol. XVIII. It is immediately noticed that Arabian emphasis is on heroes, not time. Events can be dated only to contemporary generations. Only Yemen has an accurate chronology. This weakness is still witnessed in the Islamic calendar. It is lunar, but not solar. It neglects the seasons and loses seven months in nineteen solar years.

Arabian history opens up before the time of Ishmael, as one might readily expect. It begins with the life of Joktan, the son of Heber.

The Arabs call Joktan by the name Kahtan. Joktan was the father of thirteen sons mentioned in the Bible, eleven of whom journeyed into Europe where their descendants mainly live today. Several of those sons early planted colonies along the trade routes of the world -- just as have the children of Peleg, Joktan's brother, in the modern world.

Among the sons who planted colonies along south Arabia were Hazarmaveth, Jerah and Hadoram (whom the Arabs call Jorham). Ophir also planted colonies in other areas of the world.

In later history the sons of Hazarmaveth migrated out of Arabia, joined with the Elamites and journeyed into Europe after the fall of Persia. There they came to be known as Sarmatians.

THE JORHAMITES OF HEJAZ

The children of Hadoram or Jorham founded Hejaz. There princes reigned until the time of Ishmael, who is said by Arabian historians to have married the daughter of Modad, a daughter of one of the princes of Jorham's family. The family of Ishmael afterward expelled the Jorhamites from Arabia. The names of the early princes of the Jorhamites have been preserved by Arab historians. Their account is summarized here:

1. Jorham, the brother of Yarab, founded Hejaz; he is Hadoram, the brother of Jerah.

2. Abd Yalil, the son of Jorham.

3. Jorsham, the son of Abd Yalil.

4. Abdo'l Madan, the son of Jorsham.

5. Nogailah, the son of Abdo'l Madan. (Note the name Medan at nearly the same time in Abraham's family.)

6. Abdo'l Masih, the son of Nogailah.

7. Modad, the son of Abdo'l Masih.

8. Amru, the son of Modad.

9. Al Hareth, brother of Amru. This name will appear again, though much later, in the form of Aretas, the king who sought to lay hands on the apostle Paul at Damascus.

10. Amru, the son of Al Hareth.

11. Basher, the brother of Amru.

12. Modad, the son of Amru, the son of Modad. It was his daughter whom Ishmael married, according to Arabian historians. His other wife his mother chose out of Egypt. Thereafter the name of Kedar (Kidar in Arabic) appears. Kedar was the son of Ishmael by the daughter of Modad. After the conquest of the Jorhamites, the family of Kedar continued to rule over the Hejaz for nine generations until Adnan, the last one named. There follows a blank period of about 1200 years, after which the Ishmaelites reappear under another leader called Adnan in 122 B.C. One branch of his descendants later established themselves as the Sherifs of Mecca.

King Hussein of Jordan is their direct descendant.

THE KINGDOM OF YEMEN

In Arabia, at the southwest corner, is the modern Yemen -- Yaman in Arabic. It means south. It is a land of many diverse tribes -- many non-Ishmaelite. Yemen was founded by Kahtan -- the Joktan of the Bible. Yemen anciently controlled the entrance to the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean. Hence its early importance to the Hebrew family. Hamza Ben-el-Hasan of Isfahan has preserved the history and chronology of Yemen to the time of Mohammed. The best summary of his work is found in "Geschichte der Araber vor Muhamed" by August Ruhle von Lilienstern, Berlin, 1836, pp. 103 ff and especially Tafel I.

Rulers of Yemen Length of Reign Dates

1. Kahtan or Joktan, first (His brother Peleg was established his rule in born 2268) Yemen, then went into Europe where he was known as Hister (meaning same as original Hebrew JOKTAN).

2. Yarab, son of Kahtan, from whom the Kahtan Arabs of the south derive their origin. His Biblical name is Jerah.

3. Yashab, son of Yarab.

4. Abd Shems, surnamed Saba, son of Yashab. He led successful expeditions against enemies in the peninsula. In 1978 he expanded his power across the Red Sea into Ethiopia, (See Ethiopian history where he established for dates) himself as the head of a new Joktanite dynasty. In Ethiopian history he is known as Akbunas Saba.

Abd Shems had several sons, among whom were Hamyar, Amru and Cahlan. Cahlan succeeded his father on the throne in Ethiopia in 1923 under the name of Nakehte Kalnis.

5, Hamyar, son of Abd Shems, 150 1709-1559 began his reign, according to Abulfeda, 129 years after the death of Hud (whom Arabs say is Eber).

Hamyar drove the remnant of the Themudites or Troglodytes out of Yemen. These were later found by Greek Geographers on the African shore of the Red Sea.

6. Wayel, son of Hamyar, succeeded to the kingdom.

Other writers mention Cahlan -- which implies a division of land among the princes.

7. Alsacsac, son of Wayel.

8. Yaafar, son of Alsacsac.

9. Dhu Rujash. At this point it ought to be noted that the number of generations over so long a period corresponds almost exactly to the Biblical record from Abraham to David.

There were 14 generations in the Bible in just under 1000 years. As in the Biblical record the inheritance often passed to a son born late in life (as in the case of David, the youngest son of Jesse).

10. Al Numan, son of Yaafar.

11. Ashman, son of Numan.

12. Shaddad, son of Ad, son of Al Matata, son of Abd Shems.

He was a very powerful prince in Arabic tradition He lived during the time of the great Hyksos expansion in the Middle East. Arab tradition claims he ruled 260 years.

13. Lokman, brother of Shaddad.

14. Dhu Sadad, brother of Lokman. -1150

15. Al Hareth, son of Dhu 125 1150-1025 Sadad. In his time Yemen became immensely wealthy. Reason? The Trojan war. With trade shut off from Scythia, it was inevitable that there should be an expansion of commerce along the southern route.

16. Dhu'l Karnain Assaab.

(Joint reign with successor who is assigned entire period.)

17. Dhutl Manar Abrahah, son of 183 1025- 842 Assaab.

18. Africus, son of Dhu'l 164 842- 678 Manar Abrahah. His name signifies the connection between Egypt, Ethiopia and South Arabia at this time. He settled North Africa with Berbers from Palestine and Egypt.

19. Dhu'l Adhaar Amru, son of 25 678- 653 Africus, made foreign expeditions.

20. Sharhabil, descendant of Alsacsac. (Joint reign.)

21. Al Hodhad, son of Sharhabil. 75 653- 578

22. Balkis, son of Hodhad. In 20 578- 558 some Arabic sources his name is confused with Belkis -- the Arabic name for the Queen of Sheba.

23. Nasherol'neam, descendant 85 558- 473 of Sharhabil.

24. Shamer Yaraash, son of 37 473- 436 Nasher. He gave his name to Samarkand in Central Asia. At this time there must have been extensive migration of Edomites and Joktanites out of Arabia into Central Asia, around Turkestan.

25. Abu Malec, son of Shamer. 55 436- 381

26. Amran, son of Amer, descendant of Cahlan, the brother of Hamyar.

27. Amru, son of Amer (both brothers reign jointly, but the chronology is reckoned after the reigns of Abu Malec and Al Akran).

28. Al Akran, descendant of 53 381- 328 Abu Malec.

29. Dhu Habshan, son of 70 328- 258 Al Akran.

30. Tobba, younger brother 163 258- 95 of Al Akran.

31. Colaicarb, son of Tobba. 35 95- 60

32. Abu Carb Asaad (Tobba). 20 60- 40 He is mentioned in the Koran. He revived religious interest among the Arabians and Hamyarites. He adorned the Kaaba, the sacred stone building at Mecca, and introduced Judaism among the Hamyarites, The Arab historian Ibu Khaldun reports that Abu Carb sent large military expeditions into Central Asia. Two of these reached Tibet and China, where they caused a great blood bath. On the way back many warriors of the Hamyarite armies settled in Tibet. Tribes using the Hamyarite alphabet were still found in that region in modern times (Marquart, "Osteurop"ische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge", p. 84). Abu Carb was murdered, possibly for religious reasons.

33. Hassan ben Tobbai, son 70 40 B.C.- 31 A.D. Abu Carb.

34. Amru Tobbai (Dhu Lawad), 63 31- 94 son of Hassan.

35. Abd Celal 74 94- 168

36. Tobba, grandson of Hassan. 78 168- 246

37. Al Haroth, son of Amru. (Joint reign.) He was king of Hamyarites who embraced Judaism.

38. Morthed, son of Celal, also 41 246- 287 surnamed Dhu Lawad.

39. Waciaa, son of Morthed. 37 287- 324

40. Abrahah, son of Alsabah (Joint reign).

41. Sabban (Joint reign).

42. Sabbash (Joint rule with 15 324- 339 Abrahah).

43. Hassan, descendant of Amru 57 339- 396 (Joint rule with Sabban).

44. Dhu Shanater. He was 27 396- 423 finally dethroned for unnatural lusts, having abused several youths of the noblest families.

45. Yusuf Dhu Nowas 20 423- 443

46. Dhu Jadan, the last of 60 443- 503 the Hamyaritic monarchs. He sought to enforce Judaism in opposition to Christianity. The Ethiopians, with help of Byzantium, defeated Dhu Jadan. He perished in the sea, fleeing from the Ethiopians. Ethiopia ruled Yemen for the next 72 years (503-575) until the Persian conquest.

47. Arnat 20 503- 523

48. Abrahah 23 523- 546

49. Iecsoum (Yacsum) 17 546- 563

50. Masruk 12 563- 575

51. Seif Ebn Dhu Yazan, a 575 descendant of the old royal family of Hamyar, recovered the throne from the Ethiopians with the aid of the Persian Khosru Anushirwan. Seif was, however, slain by certain Ethiopians whom he had failed to expel. After 575 the Persians appointed princes until the time of Mohammedan conquest of Yemen.

Arabian historians reckon 3000 years to the end of the Kingdom of Yemen. And it is indeed exactly 3000 years from the end of the Flood to the death of Mohammed in 632, when the government of Arabia passed to the Ishmaelite caliphs, the successors of Mohammed.

ARABIA'S INDIAN OCEAN NEIGHBORS

To complete Volume II, we must recount the brief history of Arakan, in Burma, and the history of early India before 1649. The Arakanese, in Burma, have preserved a remarkable history going back to the Tower of Babel. The initial part of it was cited in the early history of Peru. A continuation of that chart is given below. It traces the migration of peoples out of Mesopotamia into the Ganges valley. For several centuries after the age of Horus (Maradzi II of Arakanese history) there are Hindu names ending in -sandra in the list of rulers. Abruptly the names change. There followed a migration of Southeast Asians out of India into the area of Arakan along the Burmese coast.

During the time in India the early Hindu rulers utilized the nonaccession-year method of dating. That is, the last calendar year of a king (during which he died or was deposed) was also reckoned as the first calendar year of his successor. This same method was used in the nation Israel to the time of Jehu -- in contrast to the accession-year system of Judah.

Arakanese records fill in the missing years of Indian history to 1649. Properly restored from the palm-leaf records, their early rulers appear as follows:

Maradzi II (Horus) 33 2004-1971,
Babylonian accession-year reckoning
Marakeng Year 1 1971-1970
Year 32 1940-1939,
early Indian nonaccession-year reckoning
Ngatshapo Year 1 1940-1939
(a usurper) Year 21 1920-1919
Dwaratsandra Year 1 1920-1919
Year 40 1881-1880
Tholatsandra Year 1 1881-1880
Year 33 1849-1848
Tsandathuriyatsandra Year 1 1849-1848
Year 37 1813-1812
Kalatsandra Year 1 1813-1812
Year 40 1774-1773
Titsandra Year 1 1774-1773
Year 31 1744-1743
Madhuthatsandra Year 1 1744-1743
Year 20 1725-1724
Dzeyatsandra Year 1 1725-1724
Year 40 1686-1685
Mokkhatsandra Year 1 1686-1685
Year 26 1661-1660
Gunnatsandra Year 1 1661-1660
Year 12 1650-1649
Three Usurpers in one 1650-1649, calendar year. ending early Indian nonaccession-year reckoning

At this point the names of kings ending in -sandra cease. The succeeding centuries of Indian history may be found restored in Volume I of the Compendium. The migration in 1649 of Mongoloid peoples out of India to Arakan in Burma was a consequence of the war with Assyria in 1649.

CHAPTER XV -- THE MIRACLE OF THE RED SEA

Did the children of Israel really cross the Red Sea? We are told in the Bible that Israel fled Egypt during the Days of Unleavened Bread. That they were driven out because the Egyptians had been supernaturally punished by God. But at the last minute, Pharaoh changed his mind! It took yet another miracle to deliver the children of Israel out of Egypt, says the Bible -- the "miracle of the Red Sea." Did this miracle really happen?

DO MIRACLES HAPPEN TODAY?

It is time Christians recognized it takes a miracle today to separate from this world, to come out of this world's society, and to live as God has ordained! Those who say that the miracle of the Red Sea did not happen are the same people who today say we do not have to rely on any supernatural power to overcome this world. The supreme lesson to be learned from the Days of Unleavened Bread is that, after Christ has passed over our mistakes and overlooks our past, we have to go through a period of separating from this world -- and in this process we cannot extricate ourselves from this world without a divine miracle. This miracle is something that God, not man, has to perform -- just as God performed, according to the Scripture, the miracle of the Red Sea! God told the children of Israel, "Stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord." Now consider the story of what really took place during the seven days of Unleavened Bread -- from the time the children of Israel left the land where they observed the Passover to the time they crossed he Red Sea.

Modern critics have all kinds of theories as to the directions the children of Israel took when they journeyed in Egypt from the city of Rameses, where they met at the night of the Festival, to the Red Sea.

One sometimes wonders where the children of Israel would have been taken had all the modern critics instead of Moses led them from Pharaoh!

What portion of the land of Egypt did Israel journey through upon leaving? What is the route of the Exodus? Did the crossing of the Red Sea really occur?

BACKGROUND OF THE STORY

The background of the story is found in Genesis 15:18. "In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates." Is this "river of Egypt" the Nile? Some modern critics tell us "no." They claim it is, instead, a dry river bed, which flows only in the winter, in midst of the Sinai peninsula.

But the Bible plainly declares it is the River of Egypt, not the river of the Sinai peninsula. It is not the river of the Philistines.

It is the river of Egypt!

There is only one river of Egypt -- the Nile.

God gave Abraham's descendants dominion to the river of Egypt, not a dry river bed in the middle of the Sinai desert. His descendants -- the British and other Western Europeans -- built the Suez Canal.

The very fact that God used Israel to bulled the Suez Canal is in itself proof that the children of Israel should possess the land of Egypt about Suez to the Nile!

Certainly from fulfilled prophecy the river of Egypt is the Nile -- Joshua 15:4. This Scripture tells us that the border of the land in the south "passed toward Azmon, and went out unto the river of Egypt; and the goings out of that coast were at the sea: this shall be your south coast." Also in verse 47, "Ashdod with her towns and her villages, Gaza with her towns and her villages, unto the river of Egypt, and the great sea, and the border thereof." In I Kings 8:65 we find the same border: "And at that time Solomon held a feast, and all Israel with him, a great congregation, from the entering in of Hamath (near the Euphrates) unto the river of Egypt" celebrated a festival.

Now we want to find out if God ever caused the children of Israel to possess the territory east of the Nile. Was the land east of the Nile ever possessed by the children of Israel?

WHERE IS GOSHEN?

Notice what the Egyptians themselves promised for the children of Israel because of what Joseph did for them. Here is what we find in Genesis 45:10, "And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen," says Joseph to his father at Pharaoh's command, "and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast." Jacob and all of the family of Israel could dwell in the land of Goshen.

But -- where is the land of Goshen?

Modern scholars tell us that it is a small, semi-desolate area east of the Nile halfway between the Nile and the Suez Canal today.

This is supposed to be the land with which God blessed Jacob in the land of Egypt.

Because critics have assumed this is the land of Goshen, they cannot believe that there were 600,000 Israelite men, beside women and children, at the time the exodus occurred.

Of course in this area which the scholars tell us is the land of Goshen, there couldn't have even been 6,000 men, beside women and children, with all of their cattle. The fact is, scholars haven't understood where the land of Goshen is.

Genesis 46:28 tells us more of the story. "And he (Jacob) sent Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen." Jacob was coming down from Beersheba in Palestine into Egypt. "And they came into the land of Goshen. And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up (northward) to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself unto him." Did you notice that Joseph was not in the land of Goshen? Joseph dwelt where Pharaoh was. And Pharaoh was at Memphis, the capital of lower Egypt. "Joseph made ready his chariot, AND WENT UP TO MEET Israel his father." He went up to Goshen. He was going NORTH. Therefore, the land of Goshen was NORTH of the capital of Egypt at this time.

Now verses 33 and 34 of Genesis 46: "And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation?" -- Joseph instructs his father to say this -- "That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our fathers; that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians." Egyptians often hired foreigners to tend to their cattle. So the purpose was to have the children of Israel dwell in the land of Goshen to tend cattle there.

Chapter 47, verge 5 continues the story. "And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: The land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle." Did you notice that Pharaoh said to the children of Israel, "The land of Egypt is before you, the best of the land, the land of Goshen." This is the portion of Egypt that Pharaoh is actually turning over to the children of Israel because of what Joseph did!

Remember, God told Abraham that his descendants were going to control land to the river of Egypt -- the Nile. This is how God began to fulfill that promise!

Now to verse 10: "And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh. And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded." The best of the land, in verse 6, is called "the land of Goshen," while in verse 11, it is called "the land of Rameses." Obviously, then, the land of Goshen and the land of Rameses are the same! It is the best of all the land of Egypt.

THE LAND OF RAMESES

One of the titles belonging to rulers of Egypt was "Rameses." This title, one of several applied to the rulers of Egypt, existed from the beginning of Egyptian history -- long before the Pharaoh "Rameses the Great" of history, who actually began to reign in 773 (see Vol. I of the Compendium). Ancient Egypt was a feudalistic world. In feudalism the king claims theoretically to own everything He leased the land out to his princelings and lords (who lease parts of their land to others of still lower rank), but the king reserves a certain portion for himself.

Pharaoh naturally reserved the best land for himself -- the land of Goshen. It belonged personally to Pharaoh. So Pharaoh was not taking land leased to his lords. He is granting this territory to Joseph, who was next highest in the kingdom, for his service. The fee for receiving the land of Goshen of Rameses is stated in verse 6 "And if thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over MY cattle." Where were Pharaoh's cattle? In the land of Goshen, the land of Rameses. Pharaoh knew that if Joseph could bless all Egypt as he had done, his family would also be bound to bless his own stock. But in so doing, the Egyptians granted the right of the children of Israel to this territory. And by command of their ruler all the land of Goshen, the land of Rameses, is given to the children of Israel -- as partial fulfillment of God's promise that Abraham's seed should extend to the river of Egypt, to the Nile.

GOSHEN DURING THE PLAGUES

Continuing the story with Exodus 8:22. Another dynasty has risen up; Moses is dealing with a new Pharaoh. One of the plagues is about to occur: "I will sever in that day," God says, "the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou (Pharaoh) mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth. And I will put a division between my people and thy people: tomorrow shall this sign be." And this sign did occur, "... the Lord did so" (verse 24). These flies contaminated and plagued all the land of Egypt where the Egyptians were, but the flies did not plague the land where the children of Israel dwelt.

The land of Goshen is a particular territory where the children of Israel were dwelling. This was the land that had once belonged to the royal house. God makes a separation between that land and the rest of the land of Egypt.

Verse 26, chapter 9 tells us almost the same thing: "Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail." Now to Exodus 12:29, the night of the Passover. "And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt" -- this was midnight on the 14th day -- "from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon (or the prisonhouse) and all the firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also. And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said (if they were to stay there any longer), We be all dead men." In verses 34 and 35 the story continues. "The children of Israel next night -- the 15th of Abib -- having "spoiled the Egyptians" and driven their cattle, the Israelites came to the city of Rameses.

Stop for the moment and consider these facts. God told Moses, "Go not out of your houses until the morning." Moses and Aaron naturally would have remained in their house this night -- all of the night of the 14th. But Pharaoh, who was not a firstborn son, came out of his house by night to find Moses and urge him and all Israel to leave.

Modern critics tell us that Pharaoh at this time lived in the city of Thebes in upper Egypt, the land of ancient Sheba. But they are all wrong! Pharaoh's headquarters was at the city of Memphis. The ruling dynasty in Moses' day came from Xois in the Delta, but the capital of all lower Egypt was at Memphis. This is where the government administration originated. It was at Memphis that Pharaoh that night rose up and went to Moses, and said, "Get out of the land and all your people, and he was urgent on them." Pharaoh could not have been far from where Moses was. That very night, he saddled his camel and went to Moses and Aaron! Wherever the children of Israel observed the Passover was a place very near the city of Memphis!

Remember, Israel dwelt in all the land of Goshen, but they had assembled in one particular area to keep the Passover. From this area they journeyed on the daylight part of the 14th of Abib to the city of Rameses, and met there the next night, the night of the 15th!

THE NIGHT OF THE EXODUS

"The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle" (Ex. 12:37-38). From here the children of Israel left on the night of the 15th! (Deut. 16:1).

Numbers 33:3 makes it even plainer. The children of Israel "departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians." Between the morning after the Passover and the next night, "the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians Jewels of silver, and Jewels of gold, and raiment: And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them," that is, paid them, "such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians," that is, they took their wages that the Egyptians withheld from them for nearly two centuries.

Then they gathered at Rameses. Where was this city?

Let us read what Josephus plainly tells us. Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews", Book II, Chapter XV. "So the Hebrews went out of Egypt, while the Egyptians wept, and repented that they had treated them so hardly ... Now they took their journey by Letopolis, a place at that time deserted, but where Babylon was built afterwards, when Cambyses laid Egypt waste." So Rameses was the city of Letopolis, which later under Persian rule, was called the city of Babylon. Did you know there was also a Babylon in Egypt as well as in Mesopotamia where Nimrod started his kingdom?

What city is this today? Josephus, writing in Greek, calls this the city of Letopolis -- a Greek name for Rameses. Polis means city in Greek. A metropolis is a "mother city." So Letopolis was the city of Letona -- one of the names of Semiramis or Easter, the Queen of Heaven.

It is the same from which Latin has come. So this was one of the cities dedicated anciently to the Queen of Heaven. No wonder it was also called Babylon later!

"Smith's Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography" says of the city of Babylon in Egypt that it "is in later times called Fostat OR OLD CAIRO, a fortress in lower Egypt on the right bank of the Nile exactly opposite to the pyramids of Giza, and at the beginning of the canal which connected the Nile with the Red Sea.

The city of Rameses, built by the children of Israel in honor of the Pharaoh, was Letopolis, the very city which today the Mohammedans call Old Cairo!

Notice the accompanying map. God gave the children of Israel the land all the way to the Nile River. The land east of the Nile toward Palestine was the land of Goshen. That's where the cattle of Israel were grazing.

The capital city of lower Egypt was Memphis. That is where Pharaoh had his court.

The children of Israel, when they assembled in Rameses, were assembling at Old Cairo. Since they reached Rameses or Old Cairo on the night after the Passover, they must have assembled for the Passover a little to the south of Old Cairo -- near Memphis, Pharaoh's capital.

Memphis is on the west side of the Nile. Old Cairo is a little farther north on the east of the Nile River. Old Cairo is but a suburb of modern Cairo today. It is just an old section of town. Most visitors are not even permitted today to see Old Cairo because it is such a ramshackle place -- though it is not as deserted today as the children of Israel found it then. That is why they met there -- because there weren't Egyptians living in that area.

Many Bible maps cannot be relied upon. They disagree with each other and with the Bible. The producers of these maps do not use the Bible as evidence, but their human theories instead!

Josephus at least should know as much as the scholars today. And when you put his evidence with the Bible, it's very clear that it had to be near the city of Memphis where they kept the Passover! As the congregation of Israel were leaving northward they gathered at the city of Rameses, which Josephus calls Letopolls -- Babylon or Old Cairo in Egypt.

ISRAEL BUILT PYRAMIDS

Israel naturally had their headquarters near Memphis because at Memphis, the Egyptian orders were issued. That is the region where the pyramids were built. Interestingly enough, as we go through the account of Josephus we find the following surprising facts. Josephus tells us in his "Antiquities of the Jews" (Book II. Chapter IX) that the children of Israel "were forced to channel (make channels for the river), to build walls for the Egyptians and make cities and ramparts .... they set them also to build pyramids (after the pattern of the Great Pyramid), and by all this wore them out ..." The majority of the pyramids start from Old Cairo and go south, not north. The children of Israel must have labored in the area centered at the region of Old Cairo and on south throughout the heart-land of Egypt.

Notice a plain statement in the "Imperial Bible Dictionary" (published in England, Volume 5, subject, "Rameses"): "Immediately south of this region of Old Cairo there is an area where there were ancient quarries in a rocky mountain, from which much of the material for the pyramids was procured, and in which the poor Jews are said by Manetho (an Egyptian historian) to have worked." This confirms what Josephus tells us in his work entitled "Apion", Book I, Chapter 26. Near these quarries on the east of the Nile opposite Memphis is an area called "Mera-vad-Musa, or the 'Habitation (or dwelling) of Moses.' " Moses was the leader and as he communicated back and forth with Pharaoh it is logical that opposite Memphis, where many of the lesser pyramids were built, Moses should have his headquarters -- to this day bearing the name, "the Habitation of Moses." Now continuing with the "Imperial Bible Dictionary": "From thence (that is, Mera-vad-Musa or the "Habitation of Moses") they moved northward, passing, as Josephus says, by ancient Babylon or Old Cairo, and then by or over the city of modern Cairo, proceeding along the direct route to the land of Canaan, as far as Succoth, or Berket el Hadj, the 'Pool of the Pilgrims' ..." "Succoth" merely means booths -- or an encampment. It was there Moslem pilgrims, to this day, can go from Egypt over to Mecca, the holy city of the Mohammedan religion.

It is on the way that led out of Egypt to the wilderness of the Red Sea.

But let us go on to Numbers 33 and read the rest of the account.

"And they departed from Rameses (Old Cairo) in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month ... and went out with a high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians. For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the Lord had smitten among them: upon their gods also the Lord executed judgments. And the children of Israel removed from Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.

"And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in the edge of the wilderness. And they removed from Etham, and turned again (literally turned back) unto Pihahiroth, which is before Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol. And they departed from before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, and pitched in Marah." The miracle of the Red Sea! Did it really happen?

WHAT ROAD DID ISRAEL TAKE?

Now let us pick up the story with Exodus 13:17: "And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines." Here we have the first of several highways named. In ancient Egypt there were major roads which went out of Egypt. One was "the way of the Red Sea" which was southeast from the Delta.

Another was "the way of Etham," or "the wilderness of Shur" which went from Egypt through Beersheba. It was the road by which Jacob came down into Egypt. The third is "the way of the land of the Philistines" which went up from the coast through Gaza by the Mediterranean. See the accompanying map.

As Israel was proceeding north through Old Cairo, they could have easily taken the way, or the highway of the Philistines -- the Philistine highway.

Many assume that this road must have been by the Mediterranean.

They are wrong! The way of the land of the Philistines extended far into Egypt.

While the Israelites were still in Egypt, they could have traveled by the road that led northward to the land of the Philistines. But, instead of taking that, near as it was, God said, "Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and return to Egypt," God led the people about through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea.

This is another road. This is the most southerly of the three major roads in Egypt. Instead of taking the northerly route which would have taken them through the land of the Philistines, or the middle route in an easterly direction through Beersheba, they took the road leading southeast into Sinai and Arabia. God led them, not straight north, but through the way of the Red Sea.

This is the common road that even to this day the Moslem pilgrims take to the holy city of Mecca in Arabia. It is a road that has been used from the very beginning of time when human beings have dwelt in the land of Egypt.

Continuing: "And the children of Israel went up harnessed (or, in ranks of five) out of the land of Egypt" marching up the road. "And Moses took the bones of Joseph (perhaps from the Great Pyramid just west of Old Cairo?) with him: for he had straightly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you. And they took their journey from Succoth," the first stopping point on this road which went toward the Red Sea.

And from there, they took their journey "and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness (of Sinai)." At this point, they could have gone straight out of Egypt into Sinai, and Pharaoh never could have caught them! All they had to do was to follow the road just as the Arabs do today -- out of Egypt through the Sinai peninsula down through Arabia to Mecca.

Here they were at the border of Egypt, just north of the Red Sea, not by the Mediterranean. What happened next?

Now "the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night" (Ex. 13:21). It took them the seven days of Unleavened Bread to leave Egypt altogether.

God "took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people" (verse 22). "And the Lord spake unto Moses (Ex. 14:1-2), saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn (don't continue, but turn sharply to the right)

and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea." They now camp by the seashore.

WHERE ARE THESE PLACES?

The "Imperial Bible Dictionary" tells us again. "Pihahiroth, therefore, must have been the name of some natural locality, such as a mountain, or a range of mountains, a cliff, precipice, cape or promontory. It is said of the children of Israel, when (they were) overtaken by Pharaoh at the Red Sea, that they were entangled in the land, being shut in by the 'wilderness' or mountains (Ex. 14:3)." Israel could not have gone farther in its line of march. Pharaoh had them bottled up in front of the Pihahiroth range of mountains! Did God make a mistake in leading them by the hand of Moses?

Israel ended up on an area at the upper portion of the Red Sea by the Gulf of Suez where there is a huge mountain range that comes right down to the sea. When they got into this area, it was like entering a bag. They could not go any farther by land. The only place they could go was out into the water because the mountain range comes right down to the seashore.

Opposite Pihahiroth was Baalzephon. This must have been a city where Baal was worshipped. Zephon means "the north." This was "Baal of the North" -- the Baal that comes down from the north pole, clad in red and white every December 25! This was the ancient seat of Santa Claus worship.

They also camped near Migdol. Where was it?

Trumbull, in his book called "Kadesh-Barnea", page 377, reveals something about the city of Migdol: "A short distance to the northwest of Suez ... there is a station, or a pass, known as El Maktal" -- the Migdol. "It is directly on the line of the Hajj, route." The Hajj is a modern Arabic term for "the way of the Red Sea." The modern El Maktal is "near the track noted ... as the 'Way of the Bed'ween into Ancient Egypt.' " "Wilkinson judged 'from its name and position,' that this represents 'the Migdol of the Bible.' " As they encamped before Pihahiroth, which is a mountain range, and Baalzephon, then Baalzephon was on the north, and Pihahiroth was the mountain range on the south. Then between Migdol, in the west, and the Red Sea, in the east, there is an area large enough for the children of Israel to be bottled up.

The Red Sea is nearly 8 miles across here! There is a very extensive area -- many thousands of feet wide -- which could have opened up for the children of Israel to cross.

CROSSING THE RED SEA

Let's continue with Exodus 14:3: "For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in." And God hardened Pharaoh's heart, "And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them. And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel." Pharaoh overtook them camping by the Red Sea on what probably was the sixth day of Unleavened Bread.

The Israelites were now frightened. They said in verse 12, "Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians. For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wildernese. And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever. The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace. And the Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward" -- into the water? No!

Notice: "But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea." The miracle was wrought when Moses stretched his rod forth. The sea parted thousands of feet wide! Then the winds came in to drive back the waters and to build them up as a wall on either side!

Now verse 21: "Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back." It was a miracle! Contrary to seasonal weather a strong wind blew "all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his charlots, and his horsemen. And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, And took off their chariot wheels, that they drove them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians. And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their charlots, and upon their horsemen. And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it." Here was an area wide enough for 600 chosen chariots of the Egyptians to race through, beside a great many troops in order to capture the nearly 2,000,000 Israelite men, women and children. Verse 28, the waters "returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them. But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea ... Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. And Israel saw that great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the Lord, and believed the Lord, and his servant Moses."

EGYPT LEFT DESOLATE

Pharaoh was dead. His army was slain. There was not one left. There was not even a solitary messenger to tell the Egyptians what happened (Ps. 106:11). Read Exodus 15:4: "Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red Sea. The depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone. Thy right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy." God won the battle for the children of Israel. They were delivered out of the land of Egypt. They now rested on the peaceful shores of Sinai, where even today such names as "Ayn Musa" and "Ras Musa" testify to the Exodus. (See the map.) Not one of the Israelites perished, but all the Egyptians who pursued were overthrown.

Josephus adds some vivid details to the same story! "The number that pursued after them was six hundred chariots, with fifty thousand horsemen, and two hundred thousand footmen, all armed. They also seized on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was ... a (ridge of) mountains that terminated at the sea, which were impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight; wherefore they there pressed upon the Hebrews with their army" ("Antiquities of the Jews", Josephus, Book III, ch. xv, sec. 3).

A few verses in Psalm 77 are worth reading at this point. "I will remember the works of the Lord: surely I will remember thy wonders of old. I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of thy doings" (verse 11). What were God's doings? We find them in verse 16: "The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee; they were afraid: the depths also were troubled. The clouds poured out water: the skies sent out a sound: thine arrows also went abroad. The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven: the lightnings lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook. Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great waters, and thy footsteps are not known.

Thou leddest thy people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron." Thunder and rain and great lightning shook the land that night. In early morning the waters just poured in on Pharaoh as his chariot became stuck in the mud at the bottom of the sea -- and he is there to this day!

Psalm 78 also tells us a little about it. Verse 12: "Marvellous things did he in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan." The word "field" here is properly translated elsewhere as "country" or "kingdom." The "land of Egypt" is "the field," or "the country," or "the kingdom of Zoan." Zoan gave its name to Egypt because it was the earliest city built in Egypt (Numbers 13:22 says that it was built 7 years after Hebron and was apparently the first city built in post-flood Egypt).

The country of Egypt was named after Zoan just as Israel was often named after Samaria, or Judah was named after Jerusalem.

The miracles that God wrought were in the land of Egypt -- in the land of Zoan. They mean the same thing! These miracles did not occur in some obscure field outside the city of Zoan near the Mediterranean!

EGYPT'S HISTORIANS ADMIT WHAT HAPPENED

That is the story of the miracle of the Red Sea. And it is corroborated from the Egyptians' own record of history! From the Exodus forward, Egypt was for almost four centuries overrun by Amalekites (or Hyksos, the Egyptian word for "shepherds") and punished for having enslaved the Israelites. Even as late as the days of Saul and David the Amalekites dominated Egypt.

In I Samuel 30 David meets an Egyptian slave led by his Amalekite master to die in the wilderness. "And David said to him, To whom belongest thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me ..." (verse

13). The ancient Egyptian historian Manetho admits all this: "There was a king of ours whose name was Timaus (a petty dynast) at the time of the Exodus. Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was averse to us, and there came after a surprising manner, men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts (the Amalekites), and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them ..." ("Against Apion" by Josephus, Book I, Part 14).

So the historical record of Egypt, when rightly understood, confirms the Bible. There was neither Pharaoh nor army left to defend the country! They disappeared in the Red Sea without leaving a trace.

Not until the days of King Saul did Egypt recover her former power.

The miracle of the Red Sea did happen! The Bible is true!

CHAPTER XVI -- JOURNEY TO PETRA

Why should the valley through Petra be named after Moses -- if Moses was never there? Could it be that Moses and the children of Israel actually assembled in Petra before entering the Promised Land? Why are so many chapters in the Bible devoted to the minute details of the journey of Israel from Egypt to Palestine? Have these chapters hitherto undisclosed historical meaning?

AFTER MOUNT SINAI -- WHERE?

Today, almost no one supposes Israel ever saw Petra. Yet not more than two centuries ago it was common knowledge among scholars that Moses, Aaron, Miriam and the children of Israel journeyed through Petra! Now notice what really happened when Israel was about to leave Mount Sinai. It is found in Numbers 10:11-12. "And it came to pass on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year (after the Exodus), that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle .... And the children took their journeys" -- the original Hebrew reads "set forward by stages" (Jewish translation) -- "out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran." From Numbers 9:15 to 23, we learn that the encampments of Israel were determined by the movement of the cloud above the tabernacle. When the cloud was stationary, the people abode in their tents. When the cloud ascended and moved forward, the people followed it. The Eternal -- the God of Israel, who later came in the flesh as Christ -- was in that cloud! He was leading Israel. He determined their movements. Where did He take them? To "the wilderness of Paran," says Numbers 10:12.

But where is Paran?

Men assume it may mean the Sinai Peninsula, southwest of Palestine. They are only guessing! They don't really know! Where does the Bible say it is?

First, let's understand what the word "Paran" means. "Young's Concordance" gives the surprising definition: "Full of caverns." Paran comes from the Hebrew root meaning "to dig out," or "to cut out," according to the "Encyclopaedia Biblica"; hence, "to embellish or decorate" ("Strong's Concordance").

Here is a wilderness famous for a place in it which is full of caverns or caves! -- embellished or decorated with tombs! Is this place Petra? We shall see. Certainly no city is more famous for its beautifully carved caves than Petra!

Notice also that Ishmael -- the ancestor of the Arabians -- "dwelt in the wilderness of Paran" (Genesis 21:21). It does not say he dwelt in Sinai. The scripture reads Paran. And where is the ancestral home of the Arabs? In Arabia, east of the Sinai Peninsula! That indicates that the wilderness of Paran borders on Arabia!

Now turn to Numbers 12:16. Note what it says -- the children of Israel pitched their tents "in the wilderness of Paran." From here Moses sent the twelve men to spy out the land of Palestine. "And Moses sent them from the wilderness of Paran according to the commandment of the Lord" (Numbers 13:3).

After forty days "they came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh" (Numbers 13:26). Kadesh is a city (Numbers 20:16).

WHAT DOES "KADESH" MEAN?

Why was this city called "Kadesh"? In Hebrew, the word Kadesh means "holy." (See "Young's Concordance".) What made the place holy? God did! God is holy. God dwelled in the cloud over the tabernacle. The cloud abode in the wilderness of Paran in Kadesh. God's presence sanctified the city and gave the name Kadesh to it.

Kadesh has more than one name. In the book of Numbers, God commanded Israel to go up and possess the land, beginning from "Kadesh" (Numbers 13:26). But in Deuteronomy 9:23 we read: "Likewise when the Lord sent you from Kadesh-barnea, saying, 'Go up and possess the land which I have given you'; then ye rebelled ...." Kadesh-barnea is therefore another name for Kadesh.

Why should the city of Kadesh also be called "Kadesh-barnea"? The Hebrew word "barnea" comes from two Hebrew words, "bar" and "nua". The root meaning of "nua" (sometimes spelled "nuwa") is "to waver or wander." It is often translated in the Old Testament as "wanderer," "vagabond," "fugitive." "Bar" means "son." It is used in such expressions as Bartimaeus, meaning "the son of Timaeus" (Mark 10:46), "Simon Bar-Jona" -- Simon the son of Jona (Matthew 16:17).

It was at Kadesh (Numbers 13:26) that the Israelites wavered in their faith. They refused to trust God (Numbers 14:1, 11). As a punishment they had to wander or be fugitives in the wilderness. "And the Lord's anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation that had done evil in the sight of the Lord was consumed" (Numbers 32:13).

Kadesh was never referred to as Kadesh-barnea until after the Israelites wavered in their faith and had to wander as a punishment (Numbers 32:8). The significance of the name barnea, then, is "the wandering sons." Observe, now, in what mountain range Kadesh is to be found.

LOCATED IN MOUNT SEIR!

"And we journeyed from Horeb, and went through all that great and dreadful wilderness which ye saw, by the way to the hill country of the Amorites, as the Lord our God commanded us: and we came to Kadesh-barnea" (Deuteronomy 1:19). The "hill country of the Amorites" is defined by Moffatt in Judges 1:36 as extending "from the Scorpion Pass ("Akrabbim" in King James Version) to Sela and beyond it." Sela is Petra!

Consider another vital point. To reach Kadesh from Horeb or Sinai (Horeb is another name for Sinai -- Malachi 4:4 and Deuteronomy 4:10-13), the usual eleven-day route went "by the way of Mount Seir"!

Or, in other words, Israel journeyed by the Mount Seir road! But where is Mount Seir?

Mount Seir is that chain of mountains between Arabia and the Arabah or "plain" mentioned so often in the Bible. It lies east of the Arabah and extends from the Gulf of Aqaba north to near the Dead Sea.

Most maps in the back of a Bible will have these places located correctly. These maps, however, misplace Kadesh. The "Kadesh" usually located in the Sinai Peninsula is not the city Moses describes, but is the "Kedesh" of Joshua 15:23 instead -- another place altogether.

Now consider this: if the wilderness of Paran and Kadesh were in the Sinai Peninsula southwest of Palestine, there would be no reason for traveling by the way of Mount Seir!

The only reason one would have to travel by the Way of Mount Seir -- or by the Mount Seir Road -- is that Paran and Kadesh lay east of the Sinai Peninsula -- in other words, in the vicinity of Petra!

Take another scripture -- Deuteronomy 1:6-7: "The Lord our God spoke unto us in Horeb, saying: 'Ye have dwelt long enough in this mountain; turn you, and take your journey, and go to the hill-country of the Amorites and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the Arabah (in the King James Version it is called "the plain"), in the hill-country, in the Lowland, and in the South, and by the sea-shore of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates' " (Jewish translation).

Did you notice that? Israel was to journey to the Amorite hill-country, where Kadesh was located. From there they were to enter the promised land from the east, to proceed westward to the shore of the Mediterranean, and then go north to Lebanon and the Euphrates (verse

21). The first part of the promised land they would enter was the Arabah -- the wilderness just west of Petra in Mount Seir! Here is just one more proof that Kadesh and the wilderness of Paran were east of the Arabah -- east of the Sinai Peninsula -- in Mount Seir, in the vicinity of Petra!

ISRAEL WHIPPED IN SEIR

But this is not all the evidence. Notice! When Israel refused to trust God, He sternly told them: "Surely they shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them see it" (Numbers 14:23). Upon receiving this rebuke, they imperiously said: "Lo, we be here, and will go up unto the place which the Lord hath promised: for we have sinned. And Moses said, Wherefore now do ye transgress the commandment of the Lord .... Go not up, for the Lord is not among you; that ye be not smitten before your enemies .... But they presumed to go up unto the hill top: ... Then the Amalekites came down, and the Canaanites which dwelt in that hill, and smote them, and discomfited them, even unto Hormah" (Numbers 14:40-45).

Notice where this disaster befell Israel. The people were defeated even to Hormah. Where is Hormah?

"And the Amorites" -- who were Canaanites -- "came out against you, as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, even unto Hormah"! (Deuteronomy 1:42-45.)

It was in Seir -- in the mountain range where Petra is located -- that Israel was handed this severe defeat. This was not somewhere in the Sinai wilderness. This was in Seir. The Bible says so!

YET ANOTHER PROOF!

Kadesh is also said to be located in "the Wilderness of Zin." "For ye rebelled," God told Moses, "against my commandment in the desert of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify me at the water before their eyes: that is the water of Meribah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin" (Numbers 27:14).

Since Kadesh is located in the wilderness of Paran and in the wilderness or Zin, it certainly appears that Zin and Paran are two different names for the same wilderness, doesn't it? What does "Zin" mean? Here is the answer!

The spies began to search the promised land from the city of Kadesh-barnea. That is recorded in Deuteronomy 1:19-23. Kadesh was their starting point. It was an important city on the border of the promised land. It was in fact one of the promised "gates of your enemies" (Genesis 22:17). But according to Numbers 13:21, we discover that "they went up, and searched the land from the wilderness of Zin

26). The Wilderness of Zin is mentioned no less than ten times in the Bible. Invariably the only city associated with it is Kadesh. Kadesh is also the only city associated with Paran. Remember that Paran means "caverns." But what does Zin mean? It comes from the Hebrew root meaning a mountainous crag, as if piercing the sky! (See "Strong's Concordance".) Here is what the "Encyclopaedia Biblica" says: Zin "may mean the 'wall' of rock within which the wilderness of Zin lies"!

What better description could we find for the region of Petra than this! Petra is famous for its stupendous crags jutting high into the sky. Is it a coincidence that Petra -- with its rocky crags and its caves -- is the only city in the region of Arabia from which the words Paran and Zin can both be derived?

Some have been confused between the "Wilderness of Zin" and the "Wilderness of Sin." They are not the same. They are spelled differently in Hebrew. The Wilderness of Sin was reached by Israel before they even came to Sinai (Exodus 16:1). The wilderness of Zin was reached after Israel departed from Sinai. Sin was northwest of Sinai.

Zin was far to the northeast of Mount Sinai.

WHERE WAS THE "WILDERNESS OF WANDERING"?

The epoch-making night following the return of the twelve spies, "all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people wept" (Numbers 14:1). Their anger rose to rebellion next day. They hurled the accusation "Would God we had died in this wilderness" (verse

2). When God heard it, He ordered Moses to tell the people: "Tomorrow turn you, and get you into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea" (verse 25, last half). Remember, Israel was already in the wilderness of Zin or Paran. Now God orders them to leave Kadesh and go into the wilderness by the Way of the Red Sea -- that is, by the Red Sea Road. They reached Kadesh by the Mount Seir Road. Now they are to leave by another route for an area called "the wilderness." After their crushing defeat that morning at Hormah, Moses reported: "And ye returned and wept before the Lord; but the Lord would not hearken to your voice, nor give ear unto you. So you abode in Kadesh many days" -- how long? "According unto the days (the forty days of anxious waiting for the spies' return) that you abode there" (Deuteronomy 1:45-46).

God would not let them remain in Kadesh any longer. He was determined that they were to leave that day for the wilderness, rather than enter Palestine. They did not deserve the promised land. They despised it. The many days of waiting, in which they dwelled in Kadesh, comprised over forty long days. When the spies returned, they rebelled.

Thus, instead of entering the land of Canaan, Moses wrote: "Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea, as the Lord spake unto me" (Deuteronomy 2:1).

The children of Israel now move southwest from Kadesh. They take the road that leads to the Red Sea in order to journey into the wilderness. This is the wilderness which they had asked to die in (Numbers 14:2) -- and in it they were going to die! Moses called it "that great and dreadful wilderness" -- the edge of which they passed through when journeying from Sinai to Mount Seir (Deuteronomy 1:19).

This wilderness in the Sinai Peninsula has been called throughout history simply Et Tih -- meaning "the Wilderness"; or Badiyat et-Tih Beni Israel -- meaning "the Wilderness of the Wanderings of the Children of Israel." This designation runs back in the Arabian historians as far back as we have any track of their name for this desert," says Trumbull, on page 67 of "Kadesh-barnea".

Nowhere in all the Bible is this area ever called Zin or Paran! It is entirely mislabeled on most Bible maps today. Nearly thirty-seven and one-half years were spent wandering in this desolate, arid region.

No notice is taken of any wilderness encampments during those years.

Only a few major events occurring during the period are recorded in Numbers 15 through 19.

ENCAMPMENTS LISTED IN ORDER

Before we proceed further, let's consider Numbers 33. This entire chapter is devoted to the encampments of the children of Israel. This list of seemingly unimportant encampments may have far more importance for us today than we dream! Everything is placed in the Bible for a purpose! Turn now to Numbers 33. Beginning with verse 1: "These are the journeys of the children of Israel .... And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of the Lord." Then Moses lists the stopovers to Sinai (verse 15).

We have read in Deuteronomy 1:2 that the trip could be made from Sinai to Kadesh in eleven days of normal travel. The Israelites took longer, of course. Sometimes they remained a week (Numbers 12:15) or a month (Numbers 11:20) in one location before moving.

In the list in Numbers 33, the name "Kadesh" appears only once as an encampment (verses 36-37). In this list it appears just before the short journey to Mount Hor. It is therefore the second time Israel entered Kadesh. Since the children of Israel were in Kadesh twice, it is hardly likely that the first stop there should have been omitted in Numbers

33. Nor indeed is it! In Numbers 12:16, observe that the camping points between Hazeroth and the wilderness of Paran are skipped over. In Numbers 33:18-30 you will find them listed. Mount Shapher (verse 23) is one of the famous mountain peaks in the Mount Seir range. "The Mount Shapher of Moses ...

is the Jebel Shafeh of the Arabs, (which gave its name to) the mountain range lying NNE (north-northeast) of Akabah, and extending from the head of that gulf to the neighborhood of Petra and Mount Hor," wrote Charles Forster in "Sinai Photographed," page 144. This one peak gave its name to the entire range of mountains inhabited by the descendants of Seir.

The remaining stops after Mount Shapher take us east along Mount Seir to Bene-Jaakan (verse 31).

BENE-JAAKAN IS KADESH!

Notice Numbers 33:37. In the fortieth year of the exodus, Israel journeyed from Kadesh to Mount Hor where Aaron died. But when Moses related the same movements orally, he said: "And the children of Israel took their journey from Beeroth (Beeroth means "wells") of the children of Jaakan to Mosera: where Aaron died" (Deuteronomy 10:6). This scripture indicates that Mosera is another name applied to Mount Hor and that Bene-Jaakan is another name for Kadesh. Mogera means "chastisement" in Hebrew ("Young's Concordance"). It was at Mount Hor that Aaron died as a chastisement for disobeying God at Kadesh. It is certainly a fitting name for the Mount.

Now what does "Bene-Jaakan" mean?

The name "Bene-Jaakan" is merely another way of saying "children of Jaskan." The usual Hebrew word for child or son is BEN. So the locale designated Bene-Jaakan is the place where the descendants of Jaakan settled. But who was Jaakan?

Jaakan is spelled Jakan in I Chronicles 1:42 and Akan in Genesis 36:27. Jaakan was a son of Ezer. Ezer was a son of Seir the Horite (Genesis 36:20-21). The word Horite came to mean cave-dweller according to many authorities. That makes the children of Jaakan Horites or cave-dwellers. And what city in Mount Seir is more famous for its caves than Petra? History tells us that the Horites originally cut out the gaping caverns in Petra!

Certainly Bene-Jaakan is another name tor Petra!

The few children of Jaakan at Kadesh did not resist the Israelites when Israel came to Kadesh the first time, or else they would not have been there to meet the Israelites nearly forty years later! It appears also that a few of the Kenites dwelt around Petra and dominated the region. The Kenites had their strong dwelling place "in a rock" -- "in Sela" according to the original Hebrew (Numbers 24:21). Sela is Petra.

Moses' father-in-law -- a priest himself -- was a Kenite (Judges 1:16) probably from Sela, where the children of Jaakan also dwelt.

And is not this also an indication that Moses' experiences in the wilderness for forty years prior to the exodus were to train him to lead the nation Israel through Sinai to the safety of Kadesh on the borders of Canaan?

But to return to Numbers 33 . After leaving Kadesh the first time, the children of Israel did not need to stop at Mount Hor. They proceeded southwest into the Arabah and came to Horhagidgad, then to Jotbathah, then to Ebronah (verses 32-34), This took them into the Sinaitic wilderness where no further encampments are recorded for about thirty-seven years!

God saw no need to take out time with the route of their miserable wanderings.

The account in Numbers 33 next picks up the journey of Israel from Eziongeber to Kadesh again (verses 35, 36) about the beginning of the fortieth year after the exodus.

THE RETURN TO KADESH

Thirty-nine years have now elapsed since the Exodus from Egypt. "Then came the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, to the desert of Zin in the first month (of the fortieth year, according to Josephus): and the people abode in Kadesh; and Miriam (the sister of Moses) died there, and was buried there" (Numbers 20:1). The Bible records that Miriam was buried in Kadesh. In William Whiston's footnote in Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews," Book IV, Chapter IV, Section 7, we read that "her sepulchre is still extant near Petra, the old capital city of Arabia Petraea, at this day; as also that of Aaron, not far off"!

Now notice what happened next. "And there was no water for the congregation: and they gathered themselves together against Moses and against Aaron .... And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Take the rod, and gather thou the assembly together, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes; and it shall give forth his water, and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock: so thou shalt give the congregation and their beasts to drink." Then "Moses and Aaron gathered the congregation together before the rock, and he said unto them, Hear now, ye rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock? And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice: and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also." "And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron. Because ye believed Me not, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel" -- God had ordered Moses to speak to the rock, not to strike it, to show that it was God alone who could produce the water at the precise moment -- "therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them" (Numbers 20:2, 7-8, 10-12).

What rock is it that Moses struck?

It is SELA in Hebrew!

"SELA" ANOTHER NAME FOR PETRA

There are two Hebrew words commonly rendered rock. One is "sela," the other is "tsur." The word "tsur" may mean "a cliff, a rock, a boulder." When Moses struck "the rock in Horeb," thirty-nine years before, he did not strike Sela or Petra. He struck "tsur"! Observe: "Behold, I," spoke God to Moses, "I will stand before thee there upon the rock (tsur) in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock (tsur), and there shall come water out of it .... And he called the name of the place Massah (meaning "temptation"), and Meribah (meaning "strife"), because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord saying, Is the Lord among us, or not?" (Exodus 17:6-7).

This rock -- "tsur" -- is referred to spiritually in I Corinthians 10:4: "And they did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them (a better translation is "went with them"): and that Rock was Christ." The waters which sprang from the two different rocks, nearly thirty-nine years apart, were both called "Meribah" (Exodus 17:7; Numbers 20:13, 24). That has led some to confuse the events. Meribah means "strife." In both instances the children of Israel strove with God. To distinguish between the two, Moses was inspired to use the expression "Meribah in Kadesh" (Numbers 27:14), or "Meribah-Kadesh" (Deuteronomy 32:51), for the later strife over water at Sela.

About four months have now elapsed since Israel came to Kadesh the second time. "And the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, journeyed from Kadesh, and came unto Mount Hor. And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in Mount Hor, by the coast of the land of Edom, saying, Aaron shall be gathered unto his people" (Numbers 20:22-24).

WHERE DID AARON DIE?

The same event is recorded in Numbers 33:37-38. A little to the southwest of Petra is a 4800 foot mountain called Jebel Nebi Harun by the Arabs. It means Mount of the Prophet Aaron. It is the traditional site of the death of Aaron. Josephus, the Jewish historian in the time of the apostles, tells us that Aaron died on one of the "high mountains" which encompasses "Petra"! Mount Hor is by Petra! -- "by the coast of the land of Edom" (Numbers 20:23).

If you will scrutinize modern Bible maps you will see that some scholars speculate that Mount Hor might have been Mount Madurah in the Negeb, in the South of Palestine. But this area was well within the promised land. God never gave it to Edom. It is far to the west of Edom's borders. It is not where Aaron died. Aaron died on the southern border of Edom in Seir.

From Petra -- called Kadesh or Kadesh-Barnea in the account of the Exodus -- Moses expected to lead Israel into Palestine. The direct route from Petra to east of Jordan was by the King's Highway. Now we pick up the story of the Exodus with Moses' request to journey on this important road-link with Eastern Palestine.

WHERE WAS THE KING'S HIGHWAY?

When Moses and the Israelites were at Kadesh they sent messengers to the king of Edom asking permission to "go by the king's highway" (Numbers 20:17) . Edom refused passage. "And the children of Israel said unto him, 'We will go by the highway: and if I and my cattle drink of thy water, then I will pay for it'." In response to this second request we read: "And he said" -- this is Edom's reply -- "Thou shalt not go through." They refused again.

"And Edom came out against him with much people, and with a strong hand. Thus Edom refused to give Israel passage through his border: wherefore Israel turned away from him" (Numbers 20:19-21).

Israel was not permitted to go through Edom by the King's Highway.

Where was this highway?

Part of it may still be seen today. It lay east of the Dead Sea and east of Mount Seir. It is nearly identical with today's main-traveled road from Amman to the Gulf of Aqaba. All of us who have visited Petra have had to travel the same general route of this ancient highway! It is the only highway in the region!

This route east of Palestine and Mount Seir has always been known in history as the King's Highway.

What was Israel going to do, now that Edom refused them passage by this route?

JOURNEY NORTHWARD IN THE ARABAH

After Israel had moved from Eziongeber to Kadesh the second time, God said to Moses: "Ye have compassed this mountain long enough; turn northward. And command thou the people, saying: 'Ye are to pass through the border of your brethren the children of Esau, that dwell in Seir After Kadesh was reached and the King's Highway closed to them, Moses summarizes the next few months by saying: "So we passed by from our brethren the children of Esau, that dwell in Seir, through the way of the Arabah (the King James Version has "plain"), from Elath and from Eziongaber" (Deuteronomy 2:8).

Since Edom refused passage, Israel had to turn back, pass by Mount Hor, and continue northward through the Arabah to by-pass the territory of Edom.

Most Bible maps would have the children of Israel going southward around Mount Seir and then taking the King's Highway in order to by-pass Edom! It shows how little most scholars read their Bibles.

Israel had to go west of Edom through the Arabah in order to avoid cutting through the border of Edom.

Upon leaving Mount Hor, Israel journeyed to Gudgodah and to Jotbath (Deuteronomy 10:7). These two places on the road from Petra to the Arabah Road are probably spelling variants of the two locations -- Hor-hagidgad and Jotbathah -- which Israel stopped at about thirty-eight years earlier when leaving Kadesh the first time (Numbers 33:33).

This clearly proves that the Eternal was leading the children of Israel into the Arabah from Kadesh both times -- the first time southward by the Red Sea Road into the wilderness; the second time by the same Red Sea Road northward to compass the land of Edom (Numbers 21:4). This road is called the "Arabah Road" in Deuteronomy 2:8, because it ran the length of the Arabah, north and south of Petra.

When the Canaanites heard that Israel was proceeding northward (Deuteronomy 2:3, 8), "by the way of the spies" (Numbers 21:1) -- that is, by the way which the spies used to enter Palestine when they searched the land forty days -- then the Canaanites fought Israel and were this time defeated (Numbers 21:3).

These verses show that Israel proceeded northward, not southward, on the Arabah Way -- the "Way of the Plain," sometimes called the "Way of the Red Sea." To go the Way of the Red Sea does not mean one has to go to the Red Sea. It would, of course, be the route leading to the Red Sea, but one may be going in the opposite direction on the road -- just as Israel did! This Arabah road stretched from the Gulf of Aqaba northward to near the Dead Sea.

En route north, they came to Punon (Numbers 33:42). The settlement of Punon is north of Petra and in the Arabah. It is an area of extensive copper mines. (See Kelleres "The Bible as History," page

143.) Its modern Arabic name is Phenan. The stop at Punon immediately preceded the stop at Oboth (Numbers 33:43). Now compare this with Numbers 21:9 and 10. Notice that at Punon -- the stop just before Oboth -- Moses made a "serpent of brass" -- an alloy of copper. Certainly there is no mistaking where Punon is!

The very next encampment is on "the border of Moab" (Numbers 33:44).

Not until they reached the northern border of Edom did Israel cut eastward between Moab and Edom along the brook Zered (Deuteronomy 2:8, last part, and 13). This was thirty-eight years after they left Kadesh the first time (Deuteronomy 2:14).

They had to journey eastward because Israel had rejected the direct route into Palestine from the south nearly forty years earlier!

PETRA OCCUPIED BY ISRAEL

Next, let us skip over to the time Israel under Joshua took the promised land. Remember that Kadesh rightfully belonged to Israel (Deuteronomy 1:19-20). Observe what Joshua did: "And Joshua smote them from Kadesh-barnea even unto Gaza, and all the country of Goshen, even unto Gibeon" (Joshua 10:41). Here the easternmost limit of southern Palestine is the city Kadesh-barnea. Compare this with Joshua 15:1-3: "This then was the lot of the tribe of Judah ... even to the border of Edom the wilderness of Zin southward .... And their south border was from the shore of the salt sea ... and passed along to Zin, and ascended up on the south side unto Kadesh-barnea." And again: "So Joshua took all that land ... and the Arabah ("the plain" in King James Version) ... even unto the mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir" (Joshua 11:16-17). "Mount Halak" is not quite a clear translation of the original Hebrew. The word "Halak" means smooth, bare. "Smith's Bible Dictionary" indicates it is "the mountain range on the east side of the 'Arabah, or one of the bare mountain summits in that range." "Hastings' Bible Dictionary" declares: " The Arabah Valley gradually rises toward the summit level, which it reaches immediately in front of Mount Hor on the borders of Seir; and to this line of elevation the term 'smooth' would not be inapplicable, while at the same time it would be on the line of communication between southern Palestine and Petra, the capital of Seir." Observe that all these verses point out that Israel occupied the Arabah just west of Mount Seir even to the barren mountain region of Petra. Yet we found (Joshua 10:41) the easternmost border city is Kadesh-barnea.

Surely Petra and Kadesh are the same from these verses!

Years later Judah had to recapture Petra after the Edomites rebelled (II Kings 8:20; 14:7). Petra belonged to Israel. The capital of Edom was not Petra, but Bozrah (Amos 1:12; Jeremiah 49:13, 22).

Petra was the gate by which Israel controlled their Edomite enemies.

Consider another important fact. Josephus, Eusebius and Jerome wrote that the Aramaic, Assyrian and Arabic name for Petra was Rekem ("Antiquities", Book IV, Chapter VII, Section 1). Rekem comes from the Arabic word for "rock." "But in the Aramaic versions Rekem is the name of Kadesh," according to the "Encyclopaedia Britannica"! This authority, under article "Petra," further states: "Sometimes the Aramaic versions give the form Rekem-Geya (for Kadesh), which recalls the name of the village El-ji, southeast of Petra." So Petra is mentioned literally dozens of places in Scripture after all!

CHAPTER XVII -- WHERE DID THE TWELVE APOSTLES GO?

Why has the truth about the journeys of the twelve apostles been kept from public knowledge? We read plainly of Paul's travels through Cyprus, Asia Minor, Greece, Italy. But the movements of the original twelve apostles are cloaked in mystery. Why?

NOW IT CAN BE TOLD!

Did it ever seem strange that most of the New Testament, following the book of Acts, was written by Paul, and not by Peter? Why, after Peter initiated the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles at the house of Cornelius (Acts 10 and 11), did he and others of the twelve apostles suddenly vanish from view? And why only Peter and John reappear, for a fleeting moment, in Jerusalem at the inspired conference recorded in Acts 15?

We read, after Acts 15, only of Paul's ministry to the Gentiles.

Why? What happened to the twelve apostles? Let's understand!

There is a reason why the journeys of the twelve apostles have been cloaked in mystery -- until now!

You probably have been told that Jesus chose the twelve disciples, ordained them apostles, sent them, first to preach to the Jews. When the Jews, as a nation, rejected that message, you probably have supposed that they turned to the Gentiles. Nothing could be further from the truth.

It was the apostle Paul, called years later as a special apostle, who was commissioned to bear the gospel to the Gentiles.

To Ananias, who was sent to baptize Paul, Christ gave this assurance: "Go thy way: for he" -- Saul, later named Paul -- "he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel" (Acts 9:15).

It was Paul, not any of the twelve, who said: "From henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles" (Acts 18:6).

Jesus would not have called Paul as a special apostle to carry the gospel to the Gentiles, if the original twelve had been commissioned to preach to the Gentiles.

Then to whom -- and where -- were the twelve apostles sent?

JESUS' COMMISSION TELLS

Notice the surprising answer -- in Matthew 10:5-6: "These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." Jesus meant what He said! He "commanded them." The twelve were forbidden to spread the gospel among the Gentiles. It was Paul who was commissioned to that work. The twelve were to go, instead, to the "lost sheep of the house of Israel" -- the Lost Ten Tribes!

Granted, Christ did send Peter to the home of Cornelius (Acts 10 and 11) to open the gospel to the Gentiles, but Peter's life mission was to carry the gospel to "the lost sheep of the House of Israel." Peter merely opened the door, as the chief apostle, for the Gentiles.

It was Paul who went through the door and brought the gospel to the nations. Granted, Peter, in his capacity of chief apostle, made one trip to the gentile Samaritans. But that was not to bring the gospel to them. Philip had done that! Peter and John merely prayed for the Samaritans that they would receive the Holy Spirit. (See Acts 8, verses 5, and 14 through 17.)

Now we know to whom the twelve apostles were sent. They were not sent to the Gentiles, but to "the lost sheep of the House of Israel." It was Paul who went to the Gentiles.

Now to discover where Peter and others of the twelve went after they left Palestine.

That has been one of the best-kept secrets of history! If the world had known the lands to which the twelve apostles journeyed, the House of Israel would never have been lost from view! But God intended, for a special purpose, which few understand, that the identity of the House of Israel should not be revealed until this pulsating twentieth century!

"HOUSE OF ISRAEL" IDENTIFIED

From the sons of Jacob -- surnamed Israel -- sprang twelve tribes. Under David they were united as one nation -- Israel. After the death of Solomon, David's son, the twelve tribes were divided into two nations. The tribe of Judah split off from the nation Israel in order to retain the king, whom Israel had rejected. Benjamin went with Judah. The new nation thus formed, with its capital at Jerusalem, was known as the "House of Judah." Its people were called Jews.

The northern ten tribes, who rejected Solomon's son, became known as the "House of Israel." Its capital, later, was Samaria. Whole books of the Old Testament are devoted to the power struggles between the "House of Israel" and Judah. The first time the word "Jews" appears in the Bible you will discover the king of Israel, allied with Syria, driving the Jews from the Red Sea port of Elath (II Kings 16:6-7).

The northern ten tribes, the House of Israel, were overthrown in a three-year siege (721-718) by the mighty Assyrian Empire. Its people were led into captivity beyond the Tigris River and planted in Assyria and the cities of the Medes around lake Urmia, southwest of the Caspian Sea. In the now-desolate cities of the land of Samaria the Assyrians brought in Gentiles from Babylonia. These Gentiles (II Kings 17) had become known as Samaritans by the time of Christ.

The House of Israel never returned to Palestine. The nation became known in history as the "Lost Ten Tribes." To them Jesus sent the twelve apostles!

The House of Judah -- the Jews -- remained in Palestine until the Babylonian invasion, which commenced in 604 B.C. Judah was deported to Mesopotamia. Seventy years later they returned to Palestine. In history they now become commonly known as "Israel" because they were the only descendants of Jacob -- or Israel -- now living in Palestine. The ten tribes -- the House of Israel -- became lost in the land of their exile.

Jesus "came to his own" -- the House of Judah, the Jews -- "and his own received him not" (John 1:11). Jesus was of the lineage of David, of the House of Judah. When His own people -- the Jews -- rejected Him, He did not turn to the Gentiles. It was Paul who did.

Instead, Jesus said to the Gentile woman: "I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the House of Israel" (Mat. 15:24).

To fulfill, later, that divine mission -- for Jesus was soon slain on Golgotha to pay for the sins of the world -- He commissioned His twelve disciples. They were commanded: "Go to the lost sheep of the House of Israel." They did go, but history has lost sight of where they went! Their journeys have been shrouded in mystery -until now!

WHAT NEW TESTAMENT REVEALS

The history of the early New Testament church is preserved in the book of Acts. But have you ever noticed that Acts ends in the middle of the story? Luke doesn't even finish the life of Paul after his two-years' imprisonment ended! Why? You will find the answer in Christ's commission to Paul. Even before Paul was baptized, Christ had planned the future work he was to accomplish. First, Paul was to teach the Gentiles -- which he did in Cyprus, Asia Minor and Greece. Second, he was to appear before kings -- an event brought about by a two-year imprisonment at Rome. At the end of that two-year period, during which no accusers had appeared, Paul would automatically have been released according to Roman law. It is at this point that Luke strangely breaks off the story of Paul's life. See Acts 28:31.

But Paul's third mission was not yet accomplished! Christ had chosen Paul for a threefold purpose -- "to bear (His) name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel" (Acts 9:15). There is the answer. He, too, was to end his work among the Lost Ten Tribes!

Luke was not permitted by Christ to include in Acts the final journeys of Paul's life. It would have revealed the whereabouts of the children of Israel!

It was not then God's time to make that known. But the moment has now come, in this climactic "time of the end," to pull back the shroud of history and reveal where the twelve apostles went.

THREE MISSING WORDS

Now turn to the book of James. To whom is it addressed? Read it: "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting" (first verse). You probably never noticed that before. This book is not addressed to the Gentiles. It is not addressed exclusively to Judah -- the Jews. It is addressed to all twelve tribes. To the House of Judah and to the House of Israel -- the Lost Ten Tribes.

Have you ever noticed that the letter of James, like the book of Acts, ends abruptly, without the normal salutations? Read it -- James 5:20.

Compare it with Paul's epistles. In the original inspired Greek New Testament everyone of Paul's letters ends with an "Amen." Everyone of the four gospels ends with an "Amen." The book of Revelation ends with an "Amen " This little word "Amen," of Hebrew derivation, signifies completion. In the Authorized Version (most modern versions are incorrect, and in several instances carelessly leave off the proper ending found in the Greek) every one of the New Testament books ends with an "Amen" except three -- Acts, James and II John. In these three, and these three only, the word "Amen" is not in the inspired original Greek. It is purposely missing. Why?

Each missing "Amen" is a special sign. It indicates God wants us to understand that certain missing knowledge was not to be made known to the world -- until now, when the gospel is being sent around the world as a final witness before the end of this age.

God purposely excluded from the book of Acts the final chapters in the history of the early true Church. If they had been included, the identity and whereabouts of Israel and the true Church would have been revealed! It is part of God's plan that the House of Israel should lose its identity and think itself Gentile.

If the book of James had ended with the ordinary salutation, the nations of Israel would have been disclosed. Paul often ends his letters with names of places and people. See the last verses of Romans, Colossians, Hebrews, for example. This is the very part missing, purposely, from James!

And why was the short letter of III John missing an "Amen"? Let John himself tell us, "I had many things to write: but I will not with ink and pen write unto thee" (verse 13). John reveals, in the letter, a pagan conspiracy. It was a diabolical attempt by Simon Magus and his false apostles to seize the name of Christ, gain control of the true Church, and masquerade as "Christianity." God did not permit John to make known, in plain language, the names of the leaders of that conspiracy, and the city of their operation. That is why John cut his letter short. The missing "Amen" is to tell us to look elsewhere in the Bible for the answer. It is described, if you have eyes to see, in Revelation 17, Acts 8 and many other chapters of the Bible. The time to unmask that conspiracy is now (II Thessalonians 2), just before the return of Christ.

But to return, for a moment, to the letter of James.

WARS REVEAL WHERE

From James 4:1 we learn that wars were being waged among the lost tribes of Israel. "From whence come wars and fightings among you?" asks James. What wars were these? No wars existed among the Jews until the outbreak, several years later, of the revolt against the Romans. These wars absolutely identify the lost House of Israel -- the lands to which the twelve apostles journeyed. James wrote his book about A.D. 60 (he was martyred about two years later according to Josephus) The world was temporarily at peace -- cowed by the fear of Roman military might. just prior to A.D. 60 only two areas of the world were torn by wars and civil fightings. When you discover which areas these were, you will have located where the Lost Ten Tribes, addressed by James, were then living! All one need do is search the records of military history for the period immediately before and up to the year A.D. 60! The results will shock you! Those two lands were the British Isles and the Parthian Empire! (See the accompanying map for the location of Parthia.)

But these were not the only lands to which the exiled House of Israel journeyed. Turn, in your Bible, to I Peter.

TO WHOM DID PETER WRITE?

To whom did Peter address his letters? Here it is. "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia" (I Peter 1:1). These were not Gentiles. Peter was not the apostle to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:8). Paul was. Peter was chief apostle to the lost sheep of the House of Israel.

Notice the word "strangers." It does not mean Gentiles. The original Greek is parepidemos. It means "a resident foreigner," literally, "an alien alongside." It refers not to Gentiles, but to non-Gentiles who dwelt among Gentiles, as foreigners and aliens.

Abraham, for example, was a stranger, an alien, when he lived among the Canaanite Gentiles in Palestine.

Peter was addressing part of the lost ten tribes who dwelt among the Gentiles as aliens or strangers. He was not writing primarily to Jews. He would not have addressed them as "strangers," for he himself was a Jew.

Now notice the regions to which Peter addressed his letter. You may have to look at a Bible map to locate them. They are all located in the northern half of Asia Minor, modern Turkey. These lands lay immediately west of the Parthian Empire!

Paul did not preach in these districts. Paul spent his years in Asia Minor in the southern, or Greek half. "Yea, so have I strived," said Paul, "to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man's foundation" (Romans 15:20). Paul did not preach in the areas where Peter and others of the twelve apostles had carried the gospel.

Nowhere in your New Testament can you find Paul preaching in Pontus, or Cappadocia, or Bithynia. These regions were under the jurisdiction of Peter and certain of the twelve.

Paul did spread the gospel in the province of Asia -- but only in the southern half, in the districts around Ephesus. Paul was expressly forbidden to preach in Mysia, the northern district of the Roman province of Asia. "After they" -- Paul and his companions -- "were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suffered (permitted) them not. And they passing by Mysia came down to Troas" (Acts 16:7, 8). Those were the regions in which the lost sheep of the House of Israel dwelt as strangers among the Gentiles!

Paul did preach, on his first journey, in southern Galatia, in the cities of Iconium, Lystra, Derbe (Acts 14). But nowhere in the New Testament do you find Paul journeying into northern Galatia -- the area to which Peter addresses his letter to the tribes of Israel!

REMNANT OF TEN TRIBES ON SHORES OF BLACK SEA

Notice the historic proof -- confirming Peter's letters -- that a remnant of the House of Israel was settled on the shores of the Black Sea in northern Asia Minor in early New Testament times. Greek writers, in the time of Christ, recognized that the regions of northern Asia Minor were non-Greek (except for a few Greek trading colonies in the port cities). New peoples, the Greeks tell us, were living in northern Asia Minor in New Testament times. Here is the surprising account of Diodorus of Sicily: "... many conquered peoples were removed to other homes, and two of these became very great colonies: the one was composed of Assyrians and was removed to the land between Paphlagonia and Pontus, and the other was drawn from Media and planted along the Tanais (the River Don in ancient Scythia -- the modern Ukraine, north of the Black Sea, in southern Russia )." See book II, s.43.

Notice the areas from which these colonies came -- Assyria and Media. The very areas to which the House of Israel was taken captive!

"So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day" (II Kings 17:23). "The king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the River of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes" (verse 6).

The House of Israel dwelt in captivity as aliens or strangers among the Assyrians. When the Assyrians were later removed from their homeland to northern Asia Minor, part of the House of Israel migrated with them!

Here's the proof from Strabo, the geographer. Strabo named the colonists in northern Asia Minor "White Syrians" (12, 3, 9), instead of Assyrians. There were therefore, two peoples -- Assyrians and White Syrians. Who were these so-called "White Syrians"? None other than the House of Israel which had been carried into Assyrian captivity.

"Syria" was the Greek name for the whole eastern Mediterranean coastal strip north of Judea. Because the House of Israel lived in Palestine -- southern Syria in Greek terminology -- the Greeks called them "White Syrians." By contrast, the dark-complexioned Arameans remained in Syria and dwell there to this day.

When the Assyrians were compelled to migrate to Northern Asia Minor, their former slaves -- the "White Syrians" or ten-tribed House of Israel -- migrated with them! We find them still there in New Testament times. To these people -- the lost sheep of the House of Israel -- the strangers among the Assyrians (I Peter 1:1) -- the apostle Peter addresses his first letter! Could anything be plainer?

The chief apostle to the House of Israel writing to a part of the ten lost tribes dwelling among the Assyrians who originally carried them captive!

We shall see later when and where these "lost sheep" migrated from Asia Minor to Northwest Europe.

Now to draw back the curtain of history. See where each of the twelve apostles preached. You'll be amazed at the revelation.

WHAT GREEK HISTORIANS REPORT Why is it that almost no one has thought of it before? If multitudes of Greeks in Southern Asia Minor were being converted to Christ by the ministry of Paul, and at the same time multitudes among the lost ten tribes of the House of Israel were being converted in northern Asia Minor, should not those Greeks have left the record of which of the twelve apostles carried the gospel there?

Consider this also. The Greeks have not lost the Greek New Testament. They have handed it down from generation to generation. Is it not just as likely that Greek scholars should have preserved the true account of the ministry of the twelve apostles?

They have done just that!

Yet almost no one has believed them!

What the Greeks report is not what most people expect to find!

Some, who do not understand the difference between the House of Israel and the Jews, imagine the apostles went exclusively to Jews. Even some of those who know where the House of Israel is today often cannot believe that several of the tribes of Israel were not, in the apostles' day, where they are today.

Scholars have long puzzled over the remarkable information which the Greeks have handed down. These historical reports of the apostles are altogether different from the spurious apocryphal literature of the early Roman Catholic Church. Greek historians, in the early Middle Ages, have left us information from original documents that apparently are no longer extant. They had firsthand sources of information not now available to the scholarly world. What do those Greek historians report?

One valuable source of information is the Greek and Latin "Ecclesiasticae Historiae" of Nicephorus Callistus. Another, in English, is "Antiquitates Apostolicae" by William Cave.

Universal Greek tradition declares that the apostles did not leave the Syro-Palestinian region until the end of twelve years' ministry.

The number 12 symbolizes an organized beginning. Before those twelve years were up one of the apostles was already dead -- James, the brother of John. He had been beheaded by Herod (Acts 12). But where did the remaining apostles go?

SIMON PETER IN BRITAIN!

Begin with Simon Peter. Peter was made by Christ the chief among the twelve apostles to coordinate their work. Of necessity Peter would be found traveling to many more regions than he would personally be ministering to. The question is where did he spend most of his time? We know Peter was for a limited time at Babylon in Mesopotamia, from which he wrote the letters to the churches in Asia Minor (I Peter 5:13).

Babylon was the major city from which the apostles in the east worked. Similarly Paul and the evangelists under him used Antioch in Syria as their chief city (Acts 14:26). The order in which Peter, in verse one of his first epistle, named the provinces of Asia Minor -- from east to west and back -- clearly proves that the letter was sent from Babylon in the east, not Rome in the west. Rome did not become designated as "Modern Babylon" until Christ revealed it, much later, after Peter's death, in the book of Revelation, chapter 17.

Where did Peter spend most of his time after those first twelve years in Palestine?

Metaphrastes, the Greek historian, reports "that Peter was not only in these Western parts" -- the Western Mediterranean -- "but particularly that he was a long time" -- here we have Peter's main life work to the Lost Ten Tribes -- "... a long time in Britain, where he converted many nations to the faith." (See marginal note, p. 45, in Cave's "Antiquitates Apostolicae.")

Peter preached the gospel in Great Britain, not in Rome. The true gospel had not been publicly preached in Rome before Paul arrived in A.D.

59. Paul never once mentions Peter in his epistle to the brethren in Rome, most of whom had been converted on Pentecost in 31 A.D. Not even the Jews at Rome had heard the gospel preached before Paul arrived! Here is Luke's inspired account of Paul's arrival in Rome: "And it came to pass, that after three days Paul called the chief of the Jews together." Continuing, Acts 28:21. "And they" -- the Jews at Rome -- "said unto him, We neither received letters out of Judaea concerning thee, neither any of the brethren that came shewed or spake any harm of thee. But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest: for as concerning this sect we know that everywhere it is spoken against. And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening" (verses 21-23).

Here is absolute proof the Jews at Rome had never heard the apostle Peter preach.

Oh yes, there had been a "Peter" in Rome -- ever since the days of Claudius Caesar. That Peter was in a high office. He was chief of the Babylonian Mysteries. His office was that of a "Peter" -- meaning an Interpreter or Opener of Secrets. The word "peter", in Babylonian and Hebrew, means "opener" -- hence it is used in the original Hebrew of the Old Testament for "firstling" -- one that first opens the womb.

That Peter of Rome was named Simon, too. Simon Magus (Acts 8). He was the leading conspirator in the plot hatched by the priests of the pagan Babylonian-Samaritan mysteries.

These plotters sought to seize upon the name of Christ as a cloak for their diabolical religion. These conspirators became the founders of what today masquerades in the world, falsely, as the "Christian Religion." (See III John.)

Simon Peter, Christ's apostle, was in Britain, not Rome, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God. The very fact that Peter preached in the British Isles is proof in itself that part of the Lost Ten-Tribed House of Israel was already there. Simon Peter was commissioned to go to the lost ten tribes.

And significantly, about A D 60 great wars overtook Britain. That is just what James warned of in his epistle (the fourth chapter, verse 1) to the twelve tribes of Israel! Could history be any clearer?

WHERE ARE PETER AND PAUL BURIED?

For centuries the Christian world has taken for granted that Peter and Paul are buried in Rome. No one, it seems, has thought to question the tradition. Granted, Paul was brought to Rome about A.D. 67. He was beheaded, then buried on the Ostian Way. But are his remains still there? Granted, too, that universal tradition declared the apostle Peter was also brought to Rome in Nero's reign and martyred about the same time.

Many pieces of ancient literature -- some spurious, some factual -- confirm that Simon Magus, the false apostle, who masqueraded as Peter, also died at Rome. The question is -- which Simon is buried today under the Vatican? Is there proof that the bones of the apostles Peter and Paul were moved from Rome, and are not there now?

Yes!

There is a reason the Vatican has been hesitant to claim the apostle Peter's tomb has been found! They know that it is Simon Magus, the false Peter, who is buried there, not Simon Peter the apostle. Here is what happened In the year 656 Pope Vitalian decided the Catholic Church was not interested in the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul. The Pope therefore ordered them sent to Oswy, King of Britain!

Here is part of his letter to the British king: "However, we have ordered the blessed gifts of the holy martyrs, that is, the relics of the blessed apostles, Peter and Paul, and of the holy martyrs Laurentius, John, and Paul, and Gregory, and Pancratius, to be delivered to the bearers of these our letters, to be by them delivered to you" (Bede's "Ecclesiastical History", bk. III, ch. 29).

Could anything be more astounding? The bones of Peter and Paul (termed "relics" in the Pope's letter) sent by the Pope from Rome to Britain -- to the land of Israel!

About a century and a half earlier Constantius of Lyons took the relics of all the apostles and martyrs from Gaul and buried them in a special tomb at St. Albans in Britain. (Life of St. Germanus.) Is it significant that the work of God and God's College in Britain are in St. Albans? Think that over.

AND ANDREW HIS BROTHER

Britain, after A.D. 449, was settled by hundreds of thousands of new people not there in Peter's day. History knows them as Angles and Saxons. They came originally from the shores of the Black Sea -- where the House of Israel dwelt! In A.D. 256 they began to migrate from northern Asia Minor along the shores of the Black Sea to the Cymbric Peninsula (Denmark) opposite Britain. These were the people to whose ancestors Peter wrote his epistles.

Which one of the twelve apostles preached to their ancestors -- the so-called "White Syrians" -- while they abode by the Bosporus and on the Black Sea? Listen to the answer from Greek historians: "In this division Andrew had Scythia, and the neighboring countries primarily alloted him for his province. First then he travelled through Cappadocia, (Upper) Galatia and Bithynia, and instructed them in the faith of Christ, passing all along the Euxine Sea" -- the old name for the Black Sea! -- "... and so into the solitude of Scythia." One early Greek author gives these journeys in special detail, just as if Luke had written an account of the other apostles as he did of Paul. Andrew "went next to Trapezus, a maritime city on the Euxine Sea, whence after many other places he came to Nice, where he stayed two years, preaching and working miracles with great success: thence to Nicomedia, and so to Chalcedon; whence sailing through the Propontis he came by the Euxine Sea to Heraclea, and from thence to Amastris .... He next came to Sinope, a city situated upon the same sea, ... here he met with his brother Peter, with whom he stayed a considerable time ...

Departing hence, he went again to Amynsus and then ... he proposed to return to Jerusalem" -- the headquarters church "Whence after some time he betook himself ... to the country of Abasgi (a land in the Caucasus ) ... Hence he removed into ... Asiatic Scythia or Sarmatia, but finding the inhabitants very barbarous and intractable, he stayed not long among them, only at Cherson, or Chersonesus, a great and populous city within the Bosporus (this Bosporus is the modern Crimea), he continued for some time, instructing them and confirming them in the faith. Hence taking ship, he sailed across the sea to Sinope, situated in Paphlagonia ..." (pp. 137-138 of Cave's "Antiquitates Apostolicae.")

Here we find Andrew preaching to the very areas in Asia Minor which Paul bypassed. From this region, and from Scythia north of the Black Sea, migrated the ancestors of the Scots and Anglo-Saxons, as we have already seen. They are of the House of Israel -- or else Andrew disobeyed his commission!

And what of the modern Scottish tradition that Andrew preached to their ancestors? Significant? Indeed!

AND THE OTHER APOSTLES?

And where did Simon the Zealot carry the gospel? Here, from the Greek records, is the route of his journey: Simon "directed his journey toward Egypt, then to Cyrene, and Africa ... and throughout Mauritania and all Libya, preaching the gospel .... Nor could the coldness of the climate benumb his zeal, or hinder him from shipping himself and the Christian doctrine over to the Western Islands, yea, even to Britain itself. Here he preached and wrought many miracles ...." Nicephorus and Dorotheus both wrote "that he went at last into Britain, and ... was crucified ... and buried there" (p. 203 of Cave's Antiq. Apost.).

Think of it. Another of the twelve apostles is found preaching to the Lost Tribes of Israel in Britain and the West. But what is Simon the Zealot doing in North Africa? Were remnants of the House of Israel there, too? Had some fled westward in 721 B.C at the time of the Assyrian conquest of Palestine?

Here is Geoffrey of Monmouth's answer: "The Saxons ... went unto Gormund, King of the Africans, in Ireland, wherein, adventuring thither with a vast fleet, he had conquered the folk of the country. Thereupon, by the treachery of the Saxons, he sailed across with a hundred and sixty thousand Africans into Britain ... (and) laid waste, as hath been said, well-nigh the whole island with his countless thousands of Africans" (bk. xi, sect. 8, 19).

These countless thousands were not Negroes, or Arabs. They were whites -- Nordics -- who came from North Africa and Mauritania, where Simon preached. These Nordics, declares the "Universal History" (1748-Vol. xviii, p. 194), "gave out, that their ancestors were driven out of Asia by a powerful enemy, and pursued into Greece; from whence they made their escape" to North Africa. "But this ... was to be understood only of the white nations inhabiting some parts of western Barbary and Numidia." What white nation was driven from the western shores of western Asia? The House of Israel! Their powerful enemy? The Assyrians!

For almost three centuries after the time of Simon Zelotes they remained in Mauritania. But they are not in North Africa today. They arrived in Britain shortly after A.D. 449 at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion.

In A.D. 598, when the bishop of Rome sent Augustine to bring Catholicism to England he found the inhabitants were already professing Christians! Their ancestors had already heard the message from one of the twelve apostles!

AND IRELAND TOO!

Another of the apostles sent to the lost sheep of the House of Israel was James, the son of Alphaeus. Some early writers were confused by the fact that two of the twelve apostles were named James. James, son of Alphaeus, was the one who left Palestine after the first twelve years. The deeds of this apostle are sometimes mistakenly assigned to James, John's brother. But that James was already martyred by Herod (Acts 12:2).

Where did James, son of Alphaeus, preach?

"The Spanish writers generally contend, after the death of Stephen he came to these Western parts, and particularly into Spain (some add Britain and Ireland) where he planted Christianity" (p. 148 of Cave's work)

Note it. Yet another apostle sent to the lost sheep of the House of Israel ends in the British Isles -- in Ireland as well as in Britain!

Eusebius, in his third book of "Evangelical Demonstrations", chapter 7, admitted that the apostles "passed over to those which are called the British Isles." Again he wrote: "Some of the Apostles preached the Gospel in the British Isles." Could anything be plainer?

Even in Spain James spent some time. Why Spain? From ancient times Spain was the high road of migration from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the British Isles. The ancient royal House of Ireland for a time dwelt in Spain. The prophet Jeremiah passed through Spain into Ireland with Zedekiah's daughters (Jeremiah 41:10; 43:6). Even today a vital part of the Iberian Peninsula -Gibraltar -- belongs to the birthright tribe of Ephraim -- the British!

PAUL IN BRITAIN, TOO?

Turn, now, to added proof of the apostles' mission to the lost sheep of the House of Israel in the British Isles. From an old volume, published in 1674, by William Camden, we read: "The true Christian Religion was planted here most anciently by Joseph of Arimathea, Simon Zelotes, Aristobulus, by St. Peter, and St. Paul, as may be proved by Dorotheus, Theodoretus and Sophronius." ("Remains of Britain," page 5)

Paul is now included! Had Paul planned to go from Italy into Spain and then Britain? ... Here is his answer: "... I will come by you into Spain" (Rom. 15:28). Clement of Rome, in his letter to the Corinthians, confirms Paul's journey to the West. But did that include Britain?

Listen to the words of the Greek church historian Theodoret. He reports: "That St. Paul brought salvation to the isles that lie in the ocean" (book i, on Psalm cxvi. p. 870). The British Isles.

But was that merely to preach to the Gentiles? Not at all.

Remember that the third and last part of Paul's commission, after he revealed Christ to the kings and rulers at Rome, was to bear the name of Jesus to the "children of Israel" (Acts 9:15) -- the Lost Ten Tribes. This is not a prophecy concerning Jews, whom Paul had previously reached in the Greek world of the eastern Mediterranean.

This is a prophecy of Paul's mission to the British Isles! Could anything be more astounding?

ON THE SHORES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

James referred to Israel as scattered abroad. We have found them in Northwest Europe. And in North Africa, from whence they migrated into Britain in the fifth century And in northern Asia Minor, associated with the Assyrians. In 256 they began to migrate from the regions of the Black Sea to Denmark, thence into the British Isles in 449. But remnants of the Ten Lost Tribes were yet in another vast region beyond the confines of the Roman Empire. That region was known as the Kingdom of Parthia. Who the Parthians were has long remained a mystery. They suddenly appear near the Caspian Sea around 700 B C. as slaves of the Assyrians.

"According to Diodorus, who probably followed Ctesias, they passed from the dominion of the Assyrians to that of the Medes, and from dependence upon the Medes to a similar position under the Persians." (Rawlinson's "Monarchies," Vol. IV, p. 26, quoted from Diod. Sic., ii 2, 3; 34, 1 and 6.) The Parthians rose to power around 250 B.C. in the lands along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. That was the very land into which Israel was exiled! What puzzles historians is that the Parthians were neither Persians, nor Medes, nor Assyrians or any other known people. Even their name breathes mystery -- until you understand the Bible.

The word Parthian means exile! (See Rawlinson's "The Sixth Monarchy," page 19.) The only exiles in this land were the ten tribes of Israel! The Parthians included none other than the exiled Lost Ten Tribes who remained In the land of their captivity until A D. 226.

That's when the Persians drove them into Europe.

Now consider this. James addressed his letter to the twelve tribes of Israel scattered abroad. He warns the Israelites against the wars being waged among themselves. When James wrote his letter about A.D. 60 the world was at peace except for two regions -- Britain and Parthia!

There is no mistaking this. Parthia and Britain were Israelite.

Which of the twelve apostles carried the gospel to the Parthian Israelites?

The Greek historians reveal that Thomas brought the gospel to "Parthia, after which Sophornius and others inform us, that he preached the gospel to the Medes, Persians, Carmans, Hyrcani, Bactrians, and the neighbor nations" (Cave's "Antiq. Apost.", p. 189).

These strange sounding names are the lands we know today as Iran (or Persia) and Afghanistan. In apostolic days the whole region was subject to the Parthians.

Though many Israelites had left the region already, multitudes remained behind, spread over adjoining territory. They lost their identity and became identified with the names of the districts in which they lived.

Josephus, the Jewish historian, was familiar with Parthia as a major dwelling place of the Ten Tribes. He declares: "But then the entire body of the people of Israel (the Ten Tribes) remained in that country (they did not return to Palestine); wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers" ("Antiq. of the Jews", bk. xi, ch. v, 2). There it is! The very area to which Thomas sojourned was, reports Josephus, filled with uncounted multitudes of the Ten Tribes! Josephus was, apparently, unaware of those who had already migrated westward. But he does make it plain that only the House of Judah ever returned to Palestine. The House of Israel was "beyond Euphrates till now"!

Parthia was defeated by Persia in 226 A.D. Expelled from Parthia, the Ten Tribes and the Medes moved north of the Black Sea, into Scythia. (See R. G. Latham's "The Native Races of the Russian Empire," page 216.) From there, around A.D. 256, the Ten Tribes migrated with their brethren from Asia Minor into Northwest Europe. This migration was occasioned by a concerted Roman attack in the east. It backfired on the Romans, for hordes of Israelites and Assyrians suddenly broke through the Roman defenses in the West that same year! Thomas also journeyed into Northwest India, east of Persia, where the "White Indians" dwelt. These "White Indians" -- that is, whites living in India -- were also known as "Nephthalite Huns," in later Greek records. Any connection with the tribe of Naphtali? They were overthrown in the sixth century and migrated into Scandinavia. The archaeology of Scandinavia confirms this event.

Bartholomew shared, with Thomas, the same vast plains, according to Nicephorus. Bartholomew also spent part of his time in neighboring Armenia and a portion of Upper Phrygia in Asia Minor. Nicephorus termed the area, in his history, the "Western and Northern parts of Asia," by which he meant Upper Asia Minor, modern Turkey today. This was the same district to which Andrew carried the gospel, and to which Peter sent two of his letters.

Jude, also named Libbaeus Thaddaeus, had part in the ministry in Assyria and Mesopotamia. That is part of Parthia which Josephus designated as still inhabited by the Ten Tribes. The Parthian kingdom, which was composed of the Ten Tribes ruling over Gentiles, possessed Assyria and Mesopotamia during most of the New Testament period. From the famous city Babylon, in Mesopotamia, Peter directed the work of all the apostles in the East (Parthia).

Scythia and Upper Asia (meaning Asia Minor) were the regions assigned to Philip. (See Cave's "Antiq. Apost.", p. 168). Scythia was the name of the vast plain north of the Black and the Caspian Seas. To this region a great colony of Israelites migrated after the fall of the Persian Empire in 331. From Scythia migrated the Scots. The word Scot is derived from the word Scyth. It means an inhabitant of Scythia. The Scots are part of the House of Israel.

Interestingly, the word Scythia, in Celtic, has the same meaning that Hebrew does in the Semitic language -- a migrant or wanderer!

WHERE DID MATTHEW GO?

Matthew, Metaphrastes tells us, "went first into Parthia, and having successfully planted Christianity in those parts, thence travelled to Aethiopia, that is, the Asiatic Aethiopia, lying near India." For some centuries this region of the Hindu Kush, bordering on Scythia and Parthia, was known as "White India." It lies slightly east of the area where the Assyrians settled the Israelite captives. A natural process of growth led the House of Israel to these sparcely populated regions. From there they migrated to Northwest Europe in the sixth century, long after the Apostles' time. Dorotheus declares Matthew was buried at Hierapolis in Parthia.

The Parthian kingdom was, in fact, a loose union of those lost tribes of Israel who dwelt in Central Asia during this period. The Persians finally drove them all out. Whenever Parthia prospered, other nations prospered. Whenever the Parthians suffered reverses, other nations suffered. Remember the Scripture: "And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee" (Genesis 12:3).

Ethiopic and Greek sources designate Dacia (modern Romania) and Macedonia, north of Greece, as part of the ministry of Matthias. Dacia was the extreme western part of Scythia. From Dacia came the Normans who ultimately settled in France and Britain.

The French tradition that Mary, the mother of Jesus, journeyed into Gaul (modern France) lends heavy weight to John's having been in Gaul in his earlier years. It was to John that Jesus committed Mary's care. She would be where he was working. Paul knew Gaul to be an area settled by the House of Israel. He bypassed Gaul on his way from Italy to Spain (Romans 15:24, 28) Gaul must have been reached by one of the twelve.

How plain! How can any misunderstand! Here is historic proof to confirm, absolutely, the identity and location of "the House of Israel." The identity of Israel, from secular sources, is itself also independent and absolute proof of where the twelve apostles carried out God's work.

CHAPTER XVIII -- SINCE THE FIRST MAN

Never has there been an age like this one. An avalanche of scientific information is pouring down upon specialist and layman alike. No one is able to keep up with the torrent of new knowledge. But is man the wiser for all this new knowledge? Are the latest conclusions of geology, of archaeology, or history any nearer the truth? Or are we being crushed by the sheer weight of new ignorance -- new superstitions, this time garbed in the respectable clothes of Scientific Knowledge?

SCIENTIFIC CONFUSION

It would seem this ought to be the wisest, most knowledgeable generation that has ever lived. But it is not! And there is a reason. Never in the history of the world have so many been speculating so much. Speculation, hypothesizing, intellectual guessing have become the lifeblood of the sciences -- especially the social sciences. The result is an age typified by a chaos of ideas.

Professor Mendenhall labels the present confused state of human knowledge thus: it "may with perhaps less courtesy but more accuracy be called chaos" ("Biblical History in Transition").

The reason? Only those facts which fit an hypothesis are concerned! The purpose of hypothesis is not eternal truth -- only intellectual curiosity to see whether the hypothesis be so!

Is it any wonder that the scholarly world is in confusion? That the genuine history of man has been rejected and forgotten? That Scripture is labeled "unscientific" and "myth"?

This second volume of the "Compendium" is devoted to that forgotten history of man.

WHY HYPOTHESES? Can the facts of geology, of archaeology, of human history and the Bible be reconciled? Not if the method of study now in vogue in the educational world is used! Crowning the heap of discarded theories with another hypothesis will not resolve the problems. Yet a solution is possible. The facts of geology, of archaeology, of human history and the Bible are reconcilable. It is the hypotheses and theories of Science and Theology that are not! No one, caught up in the vicious cycle of intellectual guessing, finds it easy to divorce facts from hypotheses.

But once one is willing to do that, the gnawing questions of science and history find answers.

Why haven't men been willing to face facts, and forget hypothesizing? The answer is simple. Facts do not automatically organize themselves into clear and unmistakable answers.

There is always the need of some kind of yardstick, some standard, to guide man in organizing the myriads of facts lying mutely before him. A geological stratum by itself does not answer when? or why? A potsherd by itself does not reveal who? or when? Even a written record by itself often fails to convey motive, proof of accuracy, or history of transmission.

Scholars and scientists must of necessity resort to some external framework or yardstick by which the recovered facts may be judged. Only two choices are available -- hypothesis or Divine Revelation.

The educated world has chosen the former. It has, without proof, rejected the latter. Hypotheses appeal to human vanity, to intellectual curiosity, to the desire to hear of something new. Divine Revelation requires acknowledgement of a Higher Power, the subjection of human reason to the revealed Mind of the Creator. But human reason revels in its own superiority. By nature it opposes and exalts itself against Higher Authority.

No wonder educators take for granted that the facts of geology, of archaeology, or human history contradict the Bible.

Not until human beings are willing to acknowledge God, to acknowledge His Authority, His Revelation, will they ever come to a satisfactory -- and satisfying -- explanation of Man and the Universe.

Not until human reason is conquered will the scholarly world enjoy the privilege of understanding the meaning of geology, of archaeology, of history and the Bible.

UNCOVERING THE FACTS

Scientific and historical journals are filled with "learned" conflicts and controversies. These conflicts are not due to a lack of factual material. There are often "too many" facts. Controversies in philosophy, in science, in education are the direct result of hypothesizing. Theories and hypotheses by their very nature breed controversy. What is needed is a true view of the factual material already available. Present material is more than sufficient to solve every one of the primary questions regarding Man, his origin in time, and the record of his experiences.

Why don't today's educators know the answers to these problems?

Because they have discarded the key that would unlock the answers. That key is God's revelation of essential knowledge for man -- the Bible.

But men don't want God telling them anything authoritatively. They therefore refuse even to test whether the Bible is authoritative.

It's time we examined the facts of science. Examined, in brief outline, the beginnings of human society -- the relationship of geology and archaeology to human history and the Bible. It is possible, if we divorce theory from the facts, to discover the answers to every one of the following basic questions: Do the facts of geology confirm the Bible? Was the earth inhabited before the creation of man -- before creation week recorded in Genesis 1?

Where in geologic strata, does Creation Week of Genesis 1 occur?

Is the geographical description of the Garden of Eden and of the great river that went out of it toward the east (Gen. 2:10) confirmed by geology?

What happened to the earth as a result of the sin of Cain?

Why did his descendants wander over the earth, hunting instead of farming?

What is the relationship between pre-Flood Man and fossil Man?

What does archaeology reveal about the first sixteen centuries of human existence? Where do the so-called "Ice Ages" fit in Bible history? Why did so many forms of animal and human life disappear at the close of the geologic period labeled "Pleistocene" by scientists?

Is this the Biblical Flood?

Every one of these questions has an answer. The answers are so plain even a child can understand them -- if unprejudiced. The factual material has already been recorded for us by generations of historians, scientists and archaeologists. Yet they don't understand what they have discovered. They view everything from the evolutionary standpoint. It has simply never occurred to them that what they uncovered confirmed the Bible, and not evolution!

HOW GEOLOGISTS THINK

Most people do not know how a geologist reaches his conclusions. A geologist, of course, is one who makes a study of earth history. He investigates the rock structure of the surface of the earth. Let's accompany a geologist on one of his field trips. A geologist working in the field discovers strata of sandstone, or limestone, or silt. Perhaps in them are fossils. He wants to know when the strata were deposited. How does he decide? The answer is: HE DOESN'T!

Being a very careful man -- a scientific man -- he will go to a paleontologist for the answer. And who is a paleontologist? He is a scientist who makes a special study of fossils. It is his function to explain to the geologist the apparent age of the fossils.

And how does the paleontologist know the apparent age of the fossils? From geology? No! How can he learn it from geology when even the geologist does not know the age of fossil strata until he goes to the paleontologist who studies the fossils!! Then how does the paleontologist discover how old fossils are?

Simple! He turns to the evolution theory!

Life, the paleontologist tells the geologist, developed from the very simplest cell into the varied complex creatures that inhabit the earth today. "But what is the age of the fossils?" asks the geologist.

"Let me explain that," replies the paleontologist. "Evolution is a very slow process. It may take millions of years for one species of life to slowly develop into another totally different species. The age of your strata are determined by how long we think it took that particular species of fossils to develop. of course, we paleontologists don't all agree on these details. You might get a different answer from another paleontologist! After all, even though we all believe evolution is a fact, we do not know exactly how it occurs -- or even the exact order in which various species of life evolved." And that, in simple language, is what happens!

The age of the fossils is guessed at by the paleontologist. The source of his knowledge (or misknowledge) is not geology, but the evolution theory. He takes it for granted. He assumes the theory is a fact -- or reasons as if it were a fact. The geologist then deduces the age of the strata from the assumed age of the fossils.

DISCARDING THE FACTS

All too often the geologist discovers that, according to the assumed age of the fossils, "younger strata" are below "older strata" -- in the wrong order -- reversed! "Oh, that's all right," the paleontologist will conclude. "just consider that the strata were laid in the right order and that later a fracture in the earth's crust occurred which placed them in the wrong order." "But there was no fracture or fault line in the deposits. The strata were laid down exactly as I found them." "Don't let that concern you," the paleontologist might tell the geologist. "You are at liberty to insert fracture or fault lines where there were none, and to remove them where you plainly saw them. After all, the evolution theory explains what happened even if you did not find the evidence!" That is THE WAY evolutionary science is practiced.

This illustration was in fact presented in a public lecture in one of the most famous institutions of higher learning in Southern California.

The geologist giving the lecture added this word of advice: "It is better not to go to different paleontologists. Otherwise there will be no consistency in the dating of fossils. It is much better to consult the same paleontologist, for then, at least, one will be CONSISTENT IN HIS ERROR!" It is this kind of foolish scientific thinking -- if it can be called thinking -- that masquerades as intellectual. This is the kind of thinking that has been used to ridicule and reject the authority of Scripture.

This is the trunk of the evolutionary tree. Once it is chopped down all the twiggy side arguments fall with it!

Evolution is based on deceptive, circular reasoning. It is an unproved and unprovable hypothesis. It is made to seem rational by a fantastic use of hundreds of millions -- even billions -- of years. But no evolving fossil -- bridging the gaps from one Genesis kind to another -- has ever been found. No half-evolved living species, has ever been seen by man. God-ordained varieties of each kind -- yes! But no evolution from one Genesis kind to another!

It is time we opened our eyes to the falsehoods in modern education.

Naturally, geologists have found many important and true facts.

Once we divorce the facts from the theories and hypotheses, true earth history becomes plain. Now take a look at the facts as they are found.

See how they fit the Bible account.

THE FACTS OF GEOLOGY

First, look at the recent astounding discoveries of geology. They are of such magnitude as to revolutionize the whole field of scientific studies. They tell an incredible story. Geologists, like all scientists, are noted for the care which they take in exact observations and measurements -- though in theorizing they know no bounds to their wildest speculations.

After decades of careful firsthand observation, geologists came to recognize a definite, worldwide break in the geological strata. They didn't understand its meaning. They never looked into the Bible to see if an answer were there.

The strata below the break revealed a world entirely different from the one we see around us today. Nowhere in the lower strata does one find fossil Man, or remains warm-blooded creatures so characteristic of our world. Missing, too, are the angiosperms -- plants having their seeds enclosed in an ovary.

Evolutionary geologists immediately jumped to the conclusion that this was a "proof" of evolution. They couldn't have been more mistaken.

Above the break, the strata reveal forms of life vividly described in Genesis 1. There are human remains, many varieties of mammals, birds and flowering trees. Why the sudden appearance of new kinds of life?

What is the meaning of this break in the geological horizon? Is it mentioned in the Bible?

Most scientists and historians never looked to see. The theologians never stopped to investigate. But the facts are plain for all to see. There has been no past evolution of living matter.

CONFIRMATION OF GENESIS ONE

Genesis 1 has been woefully misunderstood. "Creation Week" is not the record of the original creation of matter, but an account of re-creation! The first chapter of Genesis contains two distinct accounts. The first two verses are a brief account of the creation of matter and physical energy -- of a beautiful earth fit for habitation -- "in the beginning." The second account is about the work of re-creation following a frightful catastrophe which befell the first world. That catastrophe is briefly summarized in verse 2 of Genesis 1. These verses, according to the original inspired Hebrew text, read: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth had become without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep." God created the world fit for habitation. It was not created a waste. Isaiah 45:18 reveals: "... God himself that formed the earth ... he created it not in vain (the original Hebrew is the same as in Genesis 1:2 -- meaning "not a waste"), he formed it to be inhabited." The first or pre-Adamic creation was turned into a chaotic wreck.

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Virtually all life perished. (Psalm 104: 28-29.) The whole face of the earth was covered with water.

The Biblical record of Genesis 1:2 is confirmed by the enigmatic break which scientists have found in the geological strata. The strata below the break are the remains of the pre-Adamic world!

WHAT INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL YEAR REVEALED

For scores of years geologists assumed the ocean floors were the quiet resting places of thousands of feet of mud and slime. Then came the shocking truth. Those thousands of feet of mud were not there. The geologists could hardly believe their eyes. An immense catastrophe had befallen the earth. Everywhere men sent down into the oceans their coring devices they discovered the ocean depths had suffered a tremendous volcanic upheaval.

To heighten the shock of the discovery, scientists found the catastrophe had struck the ocean depths at the same moment in geological history that it had struck the land masses. On land it had been recognized as a worldwide break in the geological strata. To this upheaval geologists assign the label "Cretaceous" -- meaning "chalky" -- because of the nature of the chalky deposits in England where the strata were first studied.

Geologists thought they would find strata in the sea below the so-called "Cretaceous" deposits -- just as they find them on the continents. They didn't. Reported Ericson and Wollin: "... no sediment older than Upper Cretaceous time has been found in the ocean basins because there is none there to find" ("The Deep and the Past", p. 266).

None to find? of course! On the ocean floors the world before man has been buried under tremendous volcanic eruptions.

The authors continue: "The paleontological and geophysical evidence tells in clear enough language that some sort of drastic reorganization of the floors of the oceans must have taken place toward the end of the Lower Cretaceous Period .... We can be sure (that is usually a sure sign that scholars, historians, and scientists are guessing) that this volcanic transformation did not take place within the span of a few years; if it had, all marine life would have come to a sudden end as a gargantuan bouillabaisse of boiled fish. To avoid catastrophe of this sort, we need only be more liberal with time; we have plenty of it at our disposal ....

"Whence came the energy and why should its effect have been concentrated at the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous?" (Pages 267-268.)

Read that astounding quote again!

The facts are plain! There was a singular catastrophe which virtually ended all life between what geologists call the "Lower" and "Upper Cretaceous" -- that is, the dividing line between the world before Adam and the world since the creation of man.

Geologists throw around time as though it were a mere toy! By giving themselves time enough they hope to alleviate the necessity of accepting the truth of Genesis 1:2.

THE WORLD OF ADAM

To continue picking up the highlights of geology which confirm the Biblical record -- The second chapter of Genesis, verses 8 to 15, preserves a remarkable account of the geography of the land of Eden where Man first dwelt. Many Scripture passages indicate it was the land of Palestine, with the Garden lying eastward in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Josephus, the Jewish historian, confirms this picture in "Antiquities of the Jews," I, i, 3.

In Eden sprang forth a vast stream of water that flowed eastward through the Garden. It divided into four parts, three of which flowed toward the north and east -- the other southward.

Where, in geological history, would one find this geographical description of the river system of Palestine and the environs of Jerusalem?

In the strata that geologists label "Upper Cretaceous"! In Palestine it is the next geological event which follows the geological break previously referred to. Jewish geologists, unaware of what they have discovered, have even presented a simple sketch of this astounding evidence. On page 35 of E. A. Speiser's "At the Dawn of Civilization" is a geologic map of Palestine in the so-called "Upper Cretaceous." Immediately to the east of Jerusalem may be seen in outline the area through which the waters from the Garden flowed. The present Jordan Valley and Dead Sea were not then formed.

With these geological points established in brief, it is not difficult to place the subsequent geological and archaeological deposits in their Biblical background.

The first few centuries of human life on earth are consequently parallel with the "Upper Cretaceous" and "Tertiary" deposits of geological science. These deposits are of course dated by evolutionary scientists as millions of years old. Time, to them, means nothing.

Geologists have no means of dating accurately these deposits. They assume their extreme antiquity because they first assumed the evolutionary hypothesis to be a fact!

The Evolutionary hypothesis is not a fact. It has never been proven and by its very nature can never be proven. Once evolution is recognized for what it is -- a mere figment of human imagination -- the whole geological timetable collapses!

THE SIN OF CAIN AND GEOLOGY

Cain is an important figure in theology. He is equally important to history and geology. Geology? Indeed! As a result of the sin of Cain the entire history of human society -- and the earth's surface -- changed. Notice the Biblical record: "And now art thou cursed from the earth ... when thou tillest the ground" -- Cain, says Josephus, sought to gain his livelihood by farming methods which depleted the soil -- "It shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive (or wanderer) and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth" (Gen. 4:11-12).

God put a stop to Cain's way -- the way of getting. If Cain and his heirs had been allowed to continue their agricultural pursuits, soils all over the world would long ago have been rendered unfit for cultivation. Human life might well have been snuffed out by mass starvation.

The geological record tells us what God did to save the soil from utter depletion. Mountain chains arose where there were none before.

Seas dried up. The balmy semi-tropical climate of the world rapidly shifted into torrid and frigid zones. Wherever Cain wandered his agricultural pursuits came to naught. When it should have rained, the weather turned dry. Just as he was about to reap the ripening crop, a storm blew in. Nothing turned out right. Cain was forced to turn to hunting and gathering the sparse wild fruits and berries. He and the generations who followed him eked out a wretched living. All this is recorded in geology and archaeology.

In the so-called "Tertiary" geological deposits, which follow the "Upper Cretaceous," immense surface changes are recorded. The climate began to turn cooler. Desert regions developed in the wake of mountain building. Pluvial and arid periods fluctuated.

"Tertiary" deposits are overlain by what geologists call "Quarternary" or "Pleistocene" deposits. The climate in the northern hemisphere became even colder. Vast snowfalls engulfed the regions now labeled Canada and Europe on our maps. The Arctic zone expanded.

Fluctuations in sea level occurred. All along the continental shore lines the changing beach levels left their mark. Many may still be seen today. Geologists mislabel this pre-Flood period "Ice Ages." This period witnessed the spread of human habitation around the world. Giants appeared according to Genesis. Fossil remains of giant human beings of this period have been found by geologists. This is the time of so-called "Paleolithic Man," or "Neanderthal Man" and the "Mousterian Culture," of the mammoth and reindeer hunters of the "Upper Paleolithic." Their culture exactly fits the curse that befell Cain.

Cain and his descendants became wanderers and vagabonds over the face of their earth. They were reduced to hunting and gathering because the soil would not yield normal crops. These ancient changes in the weather are a type of the changes of the weather now beginning to hit the earth in this twentieth century!

With an increase in human population over the centuries, Cain saw a way around his punishment. He reasoned that if he could monopolize the salt trade, he could become rich. Every human being needs salt to live. He headed for the region of the Dead Sea. There he built an important city and surrounded it with walls. Josephus describes it in detail. The Bible refers to it as the city of Enoch, which Cain built and named in honor of his son (Gen. 4:17). Archaeologists have found it -- the first walled city built before the Flood. On its site was later built the post-Flood city of Jericho. The British archaeologist Miss Kenyon has devoted much time and patience to the excavation of this important discovery (see her book Digging Up Jericho).

At Jericho and all over the eastern Mediterranean lands rapid changes in culture developed. Population increased. Many village sites dot the countryside. Intermarriage of races was a consequence of the family of Cain settling among the family of Seth in the Middle East.

Numerous fossil skeletons attest to this fact mentioned in Gen. 6:1-2.

The complete story of culture changes before the Flood may be easily pieced together from Emmanuel Anati's "Palestine Before the Hebrews," F. C. Hibben's "Prehistoric Man in Europe" and Speiser's afore-quoted book. "The Bible and the Ancient Near East" provides the proper sequence of cultures in its fourth chapter, "The Archaeology of Palestine," by G. E. Wright. These and other studies make it clear that the Flood occurred at the end of the geological epoch called the "Pleistocene." The "Recent" which follows geologically is the post-Flood world. This event is also marked in geological records by the sudden disappearance of many forms of animal life -- especially the mammoths.

EARLY POST-FLOOD WORLD

In archaeological parlance the pre-Flood world in the Middle East drew to a close with the "Natufian," the "Tahunian," pre-pottery and pottery Neolithic and related cultures. As this dissertation is being written, important new discoveries in Anatolia and Southeast Europe are adding to our knowledge of so-called "Neolithic" culture just prior to the Flood. Already archaeologists are aware that their designation "Neolithic" is a misnomer. It was not a complex of cultures based on polished stone without metals. Everywhere copper artifacts are, turning up in the Middle East -- in Persia, in Greece and along the Danube, in Anatolia and the fringes of Mesopotamian plains. Scripture makes plain that the knowledge and use of copper alloys and iron characterized the closing stages of the pre-Flood world (see Genesis 4:22).

These so-called Early Neolithic cultures are mistakenly dated (by radio-carbon) to the last half of the sixth millennium and to the fifth. Radio-carbon dates that are earlier than the 4300's ± 300 B.C. generally belong to Pre-Flood societies. Those sites and artifacts dated by archaeologists to the 4300's ± 300 and later appear in every known instance to be of the post-Flood world. This indicates that radio-carbon dates for the time of the Flood are about 2000 ± 300 years off!

The immediate post-Flood world is, in Mesopotamia and Palestine, labeled by archeologists as a transitional "Neolithic-Chalcolithic" culture stage. It is rather a senseless term! The term is meant to imply a general but limited use of metal. In short order Palestinian society developed into a so-called "Early Chaleolithic" period.

Wherever these two cultural phases appear in the Middle East, there is evidence of a break with the past. The world population suddenly appears to have shrunk to almost nothing. Migrations are on miniature scale. Areas of human habitation are limited, compared with the evidences of tremendous population in the Early Neolithic which ended in the Flood.

Of the pre-Flood world we have this startling quote from Anati in "Palestine Before the Hebrews": "... the density of population must have been then one of the greatest in Palestine. Frequently the distance from one settled spot to another is no more than a thousand feet" (p. 231).

Post-Flood Palestine was, by contrast, sparsely settled. Human habitation, springing out of Syria and Mesopotamia, was limited in the Early Chalcolithic to sites along the coast, in the mountains and along the Jordan plain. An increase in population is noted in the succeeding cultural phase -- the Ghassulian of archaeological parlance. This is the period in which Abraham appeared in Palestine. Abraham generally made southern Palestine, headquarters. Its chief town was Beersheba. It is not surprising that during this period Beersheba was the cultural center of Palestine, rather than the more populous north. It was at Beersheba that the remains of the earliest known domesticated horse was found by archaeologists ("Palestine before the Hebrews", p. 241).

Abraham's descendants ever since have been famous breeders of horses.

The lush Jordan Valley became desolate during the Ghassulian. When Tell el-Ghassul was excavated by the Pontifical Institute immense quantities of ash were found. It was immediately recognized as the time of the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah. Later, archaeologists -- confronted with this plain evidence of Scripture -- rejected the identification and placed the Ghassulian culture 1500 years too early!

And with that the evidence of geology and archaeology missing from Volume I is completed. Geology, archaeology, history and the Bible stand reconciled.

APPENDIX A

THE ENIGMA OF DYNASTY I AND II OF KISH RESOLVED The lengths of reigns assigned to the rulers of Dynasties I and II of Kish are clearly not the true lengths of reign. They are all too long. Yet they cannot be explained merely by scribal errors. The figures are intentionally long. The Babylonian priestly scribes at an early period intentionally lengthened the original figures to make Babylon excessively ancient.

The question is: Can the true lengths of reign still be deduced from the figures now preserved? The answer is Yes!

What the Babylonians did was very clever. To preserve the original figures which they had in their possession -- and yet hide them -- they resorted to a clever mathematical trick.

To understand, let's look at the Sumerian and Babylonian method of numbering. Today we are familiar with the use of decimals -- multiples of ten. But we are generally unfamiliar with the Babylonian use of multiples of sixes and sixties. Samuel Kramer explains it for laymen in "The Sumerians, Their History, Culture and Character," p. 92. To express the number 60, for example, the Sumerians used a particular symbol. But to express 600 they used another symbol, not 10 x 60. To express 3,600, they used another symbol, not 6 x 600.

Now what the clever priest-kings did was this: They took for example, a man whose length of reign was 14 years and altered the figures the following way. They multiplied the 4, the first figure to the left of the decimal point by 60. The result was 240. Then they multiplied the 1, the second figure to the left of the decimal point by

600. The result was 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 840. By working back from the expanded figures now preserved, it is possible to determine the real lengths of reigns of the priest-kings of Kish who were elected to the office. The Dynasty, it should be noted, is placed before that of Erech. It indicates that events which led to the establishment of Nimrod's political government in 2254, began two years earlier in a religious revolt that expressed itself in the building of the Tower of Babel in 2256.

Rulers of Dynasty Length of Calculation Actual Reign II of Kish -- Reign from of True Priest-Kings King List Reign Su- more than 0 x 600 + 3 x 60 = 3 yrs. + mos.

201, not more than 205 Dadasig more than 2 x 600 + 9 x 60 = 29 yrs. + mos 1785, not more than 1789 Mamagal 420 0 x 600 + 7 x 60 = 7 yrs.

Kalbum, son of 132 0 x 600 + 2 x 60 = 2 yrs. + mos Mamagal.

Tuge 360 0 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 6 yrs.

Mennumna 180 0 x 600 + 3 x 60 = 3 yrs.

Lugalmu 420 0 x 600 + 7 x 60 = 7 yrs.

Ibbi-Ea 290 0 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 4 yrs. + mos.

Eight kings are said to have reigned 3792 years; the correct total is given in the Document L1 (see p. 97 of Jacobsen's "Sumerian King List"). For all other figures, see pp. 328-329 of S. N. Kramer's, "The Sumerians, their History, Culture and Character." Rulers of Dynasty II Actual Length Dates of of Kish of Reign Reign

Su- 3 1809-1806

Dadasig 29 1806-1777

Mamagal 7 1777-1770

Kalbum, son of Mamagal. 2 1770-1768

Tuge 6 1768-1762

Mennumna 3 1762-1759

Lugalmu 7 1759-1752

Ibbi-Ea 4 1752-1748

Rulers of Dynasty Length of Calculation Actual Reign

I of Kish -- Reign from of True Priest-Kings King List Reign

Gaur 1200 2 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 20 yrs.

Gulla-Nidaba-annapad 960 1 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 16 yrs.

Pala-kinatim 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Nangishlishma and Bahina 6960 1 x 3600 + 5 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 156 yrs.

Buanum 840 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 14 yrs.

Kalibum 960 1 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 16 yrs.

Galumum 840 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 14 yrs.

Zukakip 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Atab 600 1 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 10 yrs.

Mashda 840 1 x 600 + 4 x 60 = 14 yrs.

Arurim, son of 720 1 x 600 + 2 x 60 = 12 yrs.

Mashda.

Etana, the shep- 1560 2 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 26 yrs.

herd, who ascended to heaven, who MADE FIRM ALL THE LANDS.

Balih 400 0 x 600 + 6 x 60 = 6 yrs.+ mos.

Enmenunna 660 1 x 600 + 1 x 60 = 11 yrs.

Melan-Kish, son of 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Enmenunna.

Barsalnunna, son 1200 2 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 20 yrs.

of Enmenunna.

Meszemug, son 140 0 x 600 + 2 x 60 = 2 yrs.+ mos.

of Barsalnunna.

Tizkar, son of 305 0 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 5 yrs.+ mos.

Meszamug.

Ilku 900 1 x 600 + 3 x 60 = 15 yrs.

Iltasadum 1200 2 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 20 yrs.

Enmebaraggesi, 900 1 x 600 + 5 x 60 = 15 yrs.

who smote the weapons of the land of Elam.

Agga, son of 625 1 x 600 + 0 x 60 = 10 yrs.+ mos.

Enmebaraggesi.

"Twenty-three kings reigned 24,510 years." Rulers of Dynasty I Actual Length Dates of of Kish Priest-Kings of Reign Reign Gaur 20 2256-2236 Reckoned from commencement of building Tower of Babel Gulla-Nidaba-annapad 16 2236-2220 Pala-kinatim 15 2220-2205 Nangishlishma and Bahina 156 2205-2049 Buanum 14 2049-2035 Kalibum 16 2035-2019 Galumum 14 2019-2005 Zukakip 15 2005-1990 Atab 10 1990-1980 Mashda 14 1980-1966 Arurim, son of Mashda. 12 1966-1954 Etana, the shepherd. 26 1954-1928 Balih, son of Etana. 6 1928-1922 Enmenunna 11 1922-1911 Melan-Kish, son of 15 1911-1896 Enmenunna.

Barsalnunna, son of 20 1896-1876 Enmenunna.

Meszamug, son of Barsalnunna. 2 1876-1874 Tizkar, son of Meszamug. 5 1874-1869 Ilku 15 1869-1854 Iltasadum 20 1854-1834 Enmebaraggesi, who smote the 15 1834-1819 weapons of the land of Elam.

Agga, son of Enmebaraggesi. 10 1819-1809

APPENDIX B

ETHIOPIAN KING LIST The following list of rulers is taken from "In the Country of the Blue Nile" by C. F. Rey, London, 1927 (Appendix A). It is exactly correct in the original archives. The dates are stated in years according to the Gregorian calendar. They begin in September -- hence autumn to autumn reckoning. This list of rulers is as valuable as the Chinese Shoo King.

AGDAZYAN DYNASTY OF THE POSTERITY OF THE

KINGDOM OF JOCTAN Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Akbunas Saba I. Saba 55 1978-1923 is the Arabian Abd Shems, son of Jerah (Yarab), the son of Joktan.

2. Nakehte Kalnis. Kalnis 40 1923-1883 is Kahlan of Arabian tradition, the son of Abd Shems.

3. Kasiyope (queen) 19 1883-1864

4. Sabe I 15 1864-1849

5. Etiyopus I 56 1849-1793

6. Lakndun Nowarari 30 1793-1763

7. Tutimheb 20 1763-I743

8. Herhator I 20 1743-1723

9. Etiyopus II 30 1723-1693

10. Senuka I 17 1693-1676

11. Bonu I 8 1676-1668

12. Mumazes (queen) 4 1668-1664

13. Aruas, daughter of 7 months 1664 Mumazes.

14. Amen Asro I 30 1664-1634

15. Ori (or Aram) II 30 1634-1604

16. Piori I 15 1604-1589

17. Amen Emhat I 40 1589-1549

18. Tsawi 15 1549-1534

19. Aktissanis 10 1534-1524

20. Mandes 17 1524-1507

21. Protawos 33 1507-1474

22. Amoy 21 1474-1453

23. Konsi Hendawi 5 1453-1448

24. Bonu II 2 1448-1446

25. Sebi III (Kefe) 15 1446-1431

26. Djagons 20 1431-1411

27. Senuka II 10 1411-1401

28. Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe) 50 1401-1351

29. Miamur 2 days 1351

30. Helena (queen) 11 1351-1340

31. Zagdur I 40 1340-1300

32. Her Hator II 30 1300-1270

33. Her Hator (Za Sagado) III 1 1270-1269

34. Akate (Za Sagado) IV 20 1269-1249

35. Titon Satiyo 10 1249-1239

36. Hermantu I 5 months 1239

37. Amen Emhat II 5 1239-1234

38. Konsab I 5 1234-1229

39. Sannib II 5 1229-1224

40. Sanuka III 5 1224-1219

41. Angabo II 40 1219-1179

42. Amen Astate 30 1179-1149

43. Herhor 16 1149-1133

44. Wiyankihi I 9 1133-1124

45. Pinotsem I 17 1124-1107

46. Pinotsem II 41 1107-1066

47. Massaherta 16 1066-1050

48. Ramenkoperm 14 1050-1036

49. Pinotsem III 7 1036-1029

50. Sabi IV 10 1029-1019

51. Tawasaya Dews 13 1019-1006

52. Makeda 31 1006- 975 The year 975 is the year of death of Hatshepsowe, who is Makeda. Her daughter married Solomon, Their son, Menelik, was adopted by Makeda as her heir since she had no son of her own. Menelik thus was of the line of Sheba, of Joktan and Peleg -- which explains the racial intermixture of the Ethiopian royalty.

Fifty-two sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia before the advent of Mehelik I.

DYNASTY OF MENELIK I

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Menelik I 25 975-950

2. Hanyon 1 950-949

3. Sera I (Tomai). This 26 949-923 is Zerah the Ethiopian -- here expressly recorded by name in the history of Abyssinia.

4. Amen Hotep Zagdur 31 923-892

5. Aksumay Ramissu 20 892-872

6. Awseyo Sera II 38 872-834

7. Tawasya II 21 834-813

8. Abralyus Wiyankihi II 32 813-781

9. Aksumay Warada Tsahay 23 781-758

10. Kashta Hanyon 13 758-745

11. Sabaka II 12 745-733

12. Nicauta Kandake (queen) 10 733-723

13. Tsawi Terhak Warada 49 723-674 Nsgash

14. Erda Amen Awseya, or 6 674-668 Urdemane of Assyrian records of Assurbanipal

15. Gasiyo Eskikatir -- 668

16. Nuatmeawn (Tanautamun) 4 668-664

17. Tomadyon Piyankihi III 12 664-652

18. Amen Asero 16 652-636

19. Piyankihi IV, or Awtet 34 636-602

20. Zaware Nebret Aspurta 41 602-561

21. Saifay Harsiataw II 12 561-549

22. Ramhay Nastossanan 4 549-535

23. Handu Wuha Abra 11 535-524

24. Safelya Sabakon 31 524-493

25. Agalbus Sepekos 22 493-471

26. Psmenit Waradanegash 21 471-450

27. Awseya Tarakos 12 450-438

28. Kanaz Psmis, son of 13 438-425 Awseya Tarakos

29. Apras 10 425-415

30. Kashta Walda Ahuhu 20 415-395

31. Elalion Taake 10 395-385

32. Atserk Amen III 10 385-375

33. Atserk Amen IV 10 375-365

34. Hadina (queen) 10 365-355

35. Atserk Amen V 10 355-345

36. Atserk Amen VI 10 345-335

37. Nikawla Kandake (queen) 10 335-325

38. Bassyo 7 325-318

39. Akawsis Kandake III 10 318-308 (queen)

40. Arkamen II 10 308-298

41. Awtet Arawura 10 298-288

42. Kolas II (Kaletro) 10 288-278

43. Zawre Nebrat 16 278-262

44. Stiyo 14 262-248

45. Safay 13 248-235

46. Nikosis Kandake IV (queen) 10 235-225

47. Ramhay Arkamen IV 10 225-215

48. Feliya Hernekhit 15 215-200

49. Hende Awkerara 20 200-180

50. Agabu Baseheran 10 180-170

51. Sulay Kawswmenun 20 170-150

52. Messelme Kerarmer 8 150-142

53. Nagey Bsente 10 142-132

54. Etbenukewer 10 132-122

55. Safeliya Abramen 20 122-102

56. Sanay 10 102- 92

57. Awsena (queen) 11 92- 81

58. Dawit II 10 81- 71

59. Aglbul 8 71- 63

60. Bawawl 10 63- 53

61. Barawas 10 53- 43

62. Dinedad 10 43- 33

63. Amoy Mahasse 5 33- 28

64. Nicotnis Kandake V 10 28- 18

65. Nalke 5 18- 13

66. Luzay 12 13- 1

67. Bazen 17 B.C. 1- 17 A.D. Before Christ 119 sovereigns reigned.

THOSE WHO REIGNED AFTER THE BIRTH OF CHRIST

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Sartu Tsenfa Assegd 21 17- 38

2. Akaptah Tsenfa Ared 8 38- 46

3. Horemtaku 2 46- 48

4. Garsemot Kandake VI. Jen 10 48- 58 Daraba, favourite of Queen Garsemot Kandake, crowned by Gabre Hawariat Kandake, had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem according to the law of Orit (the ancient law), and on his return Philip the Apostle taught him the gospel, and after he had made him believe the truth he sent him back.

5. Hatoza Bahr Asaged 28 58- 86

6. Mesenh Germasir 7 86- 93

7. Metwa Germa Asfar 9 93-102

8. Adgale II 10 102-112

9. Agba 1 112-113

10. Serada 16 113-129

11. Malis Alameda 4 129-133

12. Hakabe Nasohi Tsiyon 6 133-139

13. Hakli Sergway 12 139-151

14. Dedme Zaray 10 151-161

15. Awtet 2 161-163

16. Alaly Bagamay 7 163-170

17. Awadu Jan Asagad 30 170-200

18. Zagun Tsion Hegez 5 200-205

19. Rema Tsion Geza 3 205-208

20. Azegan Malbagad 7 208-215

21. Gafale Seb Asagad 1 215-216

22. Tsegay Beze Wark 4 216-220

23. Gaza Agdur 9 220-229

24. Agduba Asgwegwe 8 229-237

25. Dawiza 1 237-238

26. Wakana (queen) 2 days 238

27. Hadawz 4 months 238

28. Ailassan Sagal 3 238-241

29. Asfehi Asfeha 14 241-255

30. Atsgaba Seifa Arad 6 255-261

31. Ayba 17 261-278

32. Tsaham Laknduga 9 278-287

33. Tsegab 10 287-297

34. Tazer 10 297-307

35. Ahywa Sofya (queen) 7 307-314

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE CHRISTIAN SOVEREIGNS

1. Ahywa. Her regnal name was Sofya, and she was the mother of Abreha Atsbeha.

2. Abreha Atsbeha, reigned 26 314-340 partly with his mother.

3. Atsbeha, alone. 12 340-352

4. Asfeh Dalz 7 352-359

5. Sahle 14 359-373

6. Arfed Gebra Maskal 4 373-377

7. Adhana I (queen) 5 377-382

8. Riti 1 382-383

9. Asfeh II 1 383-384

10. Atsbeha II 5 384-389

11. Amey 15 389-404

12. Abreha II 7 months 404

13. Ilassahl 2 months 404

14. Elagabaz I 2 404-406

15. Suhal 4 406-410

16. Abreha III 10 410-420

17. Adhana II (queen) 6 420-426

18. Yoab 10 426-436

19. Tsaham I 2 436-438

20. Amey II 1 438-439

21. Sahle Ahzob 2 439-441

22. Tsebah Mahana Kristos 3 441-444

23. Tsaham II 2 444-446

24. Elagabaz II 6 446-452

25. Agabi 1 452-453

26. Lewi 2 453-455

27. Ameda III 3 455-458

28. Armah Dawit 14 458-472

29. Amsi 5 472-477

30. Salayba 9 477-486

31. Alameda 8 486-494

32. Pazena Ezana 7 494-501 Of the posterity of Sofya and Abreha Atsbeha until the reign of Pazena Ezana thirty-one sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.

DYNASTY OF ATSE (EMPEROR) KALEB UNTIL GEDAJAN

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Kaleb 30 501-531

2. Za Israel 1 month 531

3. Gabra Maskal 14 531-545

4. Kostantinos 28 545-573

5. Wasan Sagad 15 573-588

6. Fere Sanay 23 588-611

7. Advenz 20 611-631

8. Akala Wedem 8 631-639

9. Germa Asafar 15 639-654

10. Zergaz 10 654-664

11. Dagena Mikael 26 664-690

12. Bahr Ekla 19 690-709

13. Gum 24 709-733

14. Asguagum 5 733-738

15. Latem 16 738-754

16. Talatam 21 754-775

17. Gadagosh 13 775-788

18. Aizar Eskakatir 1/2 day 788

19. Dedem 5 788-793 20, Wededem 10 793-803

21. Wudme Asfare 30 803-833

22. Armah 5 833-838

23. Degennajan 19 838-857

24. Gedajan 1 857-858

25. Gudit 40 858-898

26. Anbase Wedem 20 898-918

27. Del Naad 10 918-928 Twenty-seven sovereigns of the posterity of Kaleb

SOVEREIGNS ISSUED FROM ZAGWE

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Mara Takla Haymanot, his 13 928- 941 regnal name was Zagwe.

2. Tatawdem 40 941- 981

3. Jan Seyum 40 981-1021

4. Germa Seyum 40 1021-1061

5. Yermrhana Kristos 40 1061-1101

6. Kedus Arbe (Samt) 40 1101-1141

7. Lalibala 40 1141-1181

8. Nacuto Laab 40 1181-1221

9. Yatbarak 17 1221-1238

10. Mayari 15 1238-1253

11. Harbay 8 1253-1261 Of the posterity of Mara Takla Haymanot (whose regnal name was Zagwe) until the reign of Harbay eleven sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.

A JEWISH DYNASTY, WHICH WAS NOT RAISED
TO THE THRONE, DURING THE PERIOD OF THE PRECEDING DYNASTY

1. Mahbara Wedem

2. Agbea Tsyon

3. Tsinfa Arad

4. Nagash Zare

5. Asfeh

6. Yakob

7. Bahr Asagad

8. Edem Asagad

SOVEREIGNS FROM EMPEROR YEKUNO AMLAK,

DESCENDED FROM THE ANCIENT REIGNING DYNASTIES Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Yekuno Amlak 15 1261-1276

2. Yasbeo Tseyon 9 1276-1285

3. Tsenfa Arad 1 1285-1286

4. Hesba Asagad 1 1286-1287

5. Kedme Asagad 1 1287-1288

6. Jan Asagad 1 1288-1289

7. Sabea Asagad 1 1289-1290

8. Wedma Ared 15 1290-1305

9. Amda Tseyon 30 1305-1335

10. Saifa Ared 28 1335-1363

11. Wedma Asfare 10 1363-1373

12. Dawit 30 1373-1403

13. Tewodoros 4 1403-1407

14. Yeshak 15 1407-1422

15. Andreyas 6 months 1422

16. Hesba Nan 4 1422-1426

17. Bedl Nan (6 months with 1 1426-1427 Andreyas & 6 months)

18. Amde Tseyon 7 1427-1434

19. Zara Yakob 34 1434-1468

20. Boeda Maryam 10 1468-1478

21. Iskender 16 1478-1494

22. Amda Tseyon 1 1494-1495

23. Naod 13 1495-1508 Of the posterity of Yekuno Amlak up to the reign of Naod 23 sovereigns ruled over Ethiopia.

ELEVATION TO THE THRONE OF ATSE (EMPEROR)

LEBNA DENGEL, AND THE INVASION OF ETHIOPIA BY GRAN Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Lebna Dengel 32 1508-1540

2. Galawdewos 19 1540-1559

3. Minas 4 1559-1563 Fifteen years after Atse (Emperor) Lebna Dengel came to the throne Gran devastated Ethiopia for fifteen years.

THE HOUSE OF GONDAR

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Sartsa Dengel 34 1563-1597

2. Yakob 9 1597-1606

3. Za Dengel 1 1606-1607

4. Susneyos 28 1607-1635

5. Fasil 35 1635-1670

6. Degu-Johannis 15 1670-1685

7. Adyam Sagad Iyasu 25 1685-1710

8. Takla Haymanot 2 1710-1712

9. Tewoflus 3 1712-1715

10. Yostos 4 1715-1719

11. Dawit 5 1719-1724

12. Bakaffa 9 1724-1733

13. Birhan Sagad Iyasu 24 1733-1757

14. Iyoas 15 1757-1772

15. Johannis 5 mos. & 5 dys. 1772

16. Takla Haymanot 8 1772-1780

17. Solomon 2 1780-1782

18. Takla Giyorgis 5 1782-1787 Of the posterity of Sartsa Dengel up to the reign of King Takla Giyorgis eighteen sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.

SOVEREIGNS OF ABYSSINIA SUBSEQUENT TO THE FOREGOING LIST

From about 1730 up to the advent of Theodore in 1855 these kings exercised no real power. They were murdered, deposed, restored and driven out again, or treated as nonentities by anyone of the great Rases or semi-independent kings who were strong enough to maintain themselves against their rivals, such as, for example, Ras Mikael Suhul of Tigre (1730-1780), Ras Guksa of Amhara a Galla (1790-1819), and the son (Ras Marye) and grandson (Ras Ali) of the latter.

In 1813, indeed, no less than six nominal "Kings of Kings of Ethiopia" were all alive, having been successively turned out of office by others.

The names of all these kings (who were actually raised to the throne) are, however, given below in order to maintain continuity, together with the dates (according to our calendar) of their chequered reigns.

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Yasus 1 1787-1788

2. Takla Haymanot 1 1788-1789

3. Iskias 6 1789-1795

4. Baeda Maryam 2 1795-1797

5. Junus -- 1797

6. Adimo 2 1797-1799

7. Egwala Sion 19 1799-1818

8. Joas 3 1818-1821 9 Gigar 5 1821-1826

10. Baeda Maryam III -- 1826

11. Gigar (again) 4 1826-1830

12. Iyasu IV 2 1830-1832

13. Gabra Kristos -- 1832

14. Sahala Dengel 8 1832-1840

15. Johannes III 1 1840-1841

16. Sahala Dengel (again) 14 1841-1855 At this time the empire was re-established by Theodore.

17. Theodore 13 1855-1868

18. John IV 21 1868-1889

19. Menelik II 24 1889-1913

20. Le; Yasu 3 1913-1916

21. Zauditu, empress, and 14 1916-1930 Tafari Makonnen, regent and heir.

22. Haile Selassie I, is the -- 1930 title of Tafari Makonnen after Zauditu's death. Except for period of Italian annexation (1936 1942) he has ruled to the present time.

For purposes of comparison, it should be remembered that the present Abyssinian autumn-to-autumn calendar is seven or eight years behind ours, according to the period of the year. That is, the Ethiopian date differs by eight years from 1st January to 10th September. It differs by seven years from 11th September to 31st December.

Thus the year which the Abyssinians regard as A.D. 1 is for us September A.D. 8 to September A.D. 9.

This difference is not of course exactly the same all the way back throughout the List of Kings, as revisions of the calendar took place at various dates throughout the period. But it is near enough for general comparison.

TRIBE OF POSTERITY OF ORI OR ARAM

An Aramaic royal line spread into Africa, as well as into Shinar and Syria. In Africa, the sons of Aram through Mash (and perhaps Uz also) migrated into Egypt and Ethiopia, mixing with Israel, Cush and the Egyptians. Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Ori or Aram, son of Shem. 60 2222-2162

2. Gariak I. Mash, son of 66 2162-2096 Aram, settled Charax Spasini (see Josephus). Greek word Charax is translation of Ethiopian Gariak. This Gariak I would appear to be of the family of Mash. These Arameans spread into Africa, just as Cush, north of God's Land (Palestine) are reported in Syria and Mesopotamia.

3. Gannkam 83 2096-2013

4. Borsa (queen) 67 2013-1946

5. Gariak II 60 1946-1886

6. Djan I 80 1886-1806

7. Djan II 60 1806-1746

8. Senefrou=Snefru. Job 20 1746-1726 was son-in-law of Snefru.

9. Zeenabzamin 58 1726-1668

10. Sahlan 60 1668-1608

11. Elaryan 80 1608-1528

12. Nimroud 60 1528-1468

13. Eylouka (queen) 45 1468-1423

14. Saloug 30 1423-1393

15. Kharid 72 1393-1321

16. Hogeb 100 1321-1221

17. Makaws 70 1221-1151

18. Assa 30 1151-1121

19. Affar 50 1121-1071

20. Milanos 62 1071-1009

21. Soliman Tehagui. Soliman, 73 1009- 936 an elderly man probably in his 90's, died the year in which he received the news of the overthrow of Zerah and the Ethiopians and their allies (937-936).

Twenty-one sovereigns of the Tribe of Ori ruled.

THE LINE OF HAM, CUSH AND SABTAH IN NUBIA (THE SUDAN)

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Kam = Ham. Date of 78 2255-2177 Ham is predated to the autumn preceding overthrow of Babel. The Chinese predated to the winter solstice.

2. Kout = Cush. Son of 50 2177-2127 Ham.

3. Habassi 40 2127-2087

4. Sebtah 30 2087-2057

5. Elektron 30 2057-2027

6. Neber 30 2027-1997

7. Amen I 21 1997-1976

8. Nehasset Nais (queen) 30 1976-1946

9. Horkam 29 1946-1917

10. Saba II 30 1917-1887

11. Sofard 30 1887-1857

12. Askndou 25 1857-1832

13. Hohey 35 1832-1797

14. Adglag 20 1797-1777

15. Adgala 30 1777-1747

16. Lakniduga 25 1747-1722

17. Manturay 35 1722-1687

18. Rakhu 30 1687-1657

19. Sabe I 30 1657-1627

20. Azagan 30 1627-1597

21. Sousel Atozanis 20 1597-1577

22. Amen II 15 1577-1562

23. Ramenpahte 20 1562-1542

24. Wanuna 3 days 1542

25. Piori II, father of the 15 1542-1527 Ethiopian whom Moses married when he overthrew Cush in Nubia. The daughter of Piori betrayed the city and her father in 1527. Twenty-five sovereigns of the tribe of Kam ruled in the land of Cush.

APPENDIX C

KASHMIR -- CHRONOLOGY FROM THE RAJATARANGINI The following information is taken from the "Rajatarangini, a Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir", by Kalhana, translated by A. Stein, 2 volumes, Westminster, 1900. Kalhana's account of Kashmir is thorough. The history need not be presented here as it can be found in detail in his chronicle. Modern scholars misunderstand Kalhana's method of using whole calendar years.

Of course, Kalhana added months and days to the whole calendar years in those instances where the exact month and day of a ruler's death was known. But, Kalhana did not intend the months and days to be counted, for they were already included in the first calendar year of the succeeding king.

The first native Kashmir dynasty -- the Gonandiya dynasty -- lasted for 1002 years. It was followed by a usurping dynasty for 192 years. The restored Gonandiya dynasty lasted 588 calendar years. Next, the Karkota dynasty ruled 253 years -- ending in 855 A.D. Working backward we discover that Kalhana began the Gonandiya dynasty of Kashmir in 1181 B.C.

This is a significant date since it corresponds to the end of the first Trojan war and the defeat of the Trojan alliance. Prior to 1181 the land of Kashmir had been part of the Indo-Persian, Assyrian and Trojan alliance against the Greeks. Hence, the beginning of this line of rulers indicates a breakup in the alliance. The Indo-Iranian peoples of Kashmir became independent under their own kings.

GONANDIYA DYNASTY

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Gonanda III 35 1181-1146
Vibhisana I 53 1146-1093
Indrajit 35 1093-1058
Ravana 30 1058-1028
Vibhisana II 35 1028- 993
Nara I (Kimnara) 40 993- 953
Siddha 60 953- 893
Utpalaksa 30 893- 863
Hiranyaksa 37 863- 826
Hiranyakula 60 826- 766
Vasukula 60 766- 706
Mihirakula 70 706- 636
Baka 63 636- 573
Ksitinanda 30 573- 543
Vasunanda 52 543- 491
Nara II 60 491- 431
Aksa 60 431- 371
Gopaditya 60 371- 311
Gokarna 57 311- 254
Khinkhila-Narendraditya 36 254- 218
Yudhisthira 39 218- 179

USURPING DYNASTY

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Pratapaditya I 32 179- 147
Jalaukas 32 147- 115
Tunjina I 36 115- 79
Vijaya 8 79- 71
Jayendra 37 71- 34
Samdhimati-Aryaraja 47 B.C. 34- 14 A.D.

RESTORED GONANDIYA DYNASTY

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Meghavahana 34 14- 48
S'resthasena-Pravarasena I 30 48- 78
(Tunjina II)
Hiranya, with Toramana 30 78- 108
Matrgupta 4 108- 112
Pravarasena II 60 112- 172
Yudhisthira II 39 172- 211
Lahkhana-Narendraditya 13 211- 224
Ranaditya (Tunjina III) 300 224- 524
Vikramaditya 42 524- 566
Baladitya 36 566- 602

THE KARKOTA DYNASTY

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Durlabhavardhana-Prajnaditya 36 602- 638
Durlabhaka-Pratapaditya II 50 638- 688
Candrapida-Vajraditya 8 688- 696
Tarapida-Udayeditya 4 696- 700
Muktapida-Lalitaditya 36 700- 736
Kuvalayspida 1 736- 737
Vajraditya-Bappiyaka- 7 737- 744
Lalitaditya
Prthivyapida 4 744- 748
Samgramapida I 7 days 748
Jajja 3 748- 751
Jayapida-Vinayaditya 31 751- 782
Lalitapida 12 782- 794
Samgramapida II (Prthivyspida) 7 794- 801
Cippatajayspida-Brhaspati 12 801- 813
Ajitapida 37 813- 850
Anangapida 3 850- 853
Utpalapida 2 853- 855

THE DYNASTY OF UTPALA

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Avantivarman 28 855- 883
S'amkaravarman 18 883- 901
Gopalavarman 2 901- 903
Samkata 10 days 903
Sugandha 2 903- 905
Partha 16 905- 921
Nirjitavarman (Pangu) 1 921- 922
Cakravarman 11 922- 933
S'uravarman I 1 933- 934
Partha (restored) 1 934- 935
Cakravarman (restored) -- 935
S'amkaravardhana 1 935- 936
Cakravarman 1 936- 937
Unmattavanti 2 937- 939
S'uravarman II -- 939
Yasaskaradeva 9 939- 948
Varnata 1 day 948
Samgramadeva -- 948
Parvagupta 2 948-950
Ksemagupta 8 950- 958
Abhimanyu 14 958- 972
Nandigupta 1 972- 973
Tribhuvana (gupta) 2 973- 975
Bhimagupta 5 975- 980
Didda 23 980-1003

FIRST LOHARA DYNASTY

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Samgramaraja 25 1003-1028
Hariraja 22 days 1028
Ananta 35 1028-1063
Kalasa 26 1063-1089
Utkarsa 22 days 1089
Harsa 12 1089-1101

SECOND LOHARA DYNASTY

Ruler Length of Reign Dates
Uccala 10 1101-1111
Radda-S'ankharaja 1 day 1111
Salhana 1 1111-1112
Sussala 8 1112-1120
Bhiksacara 1 1120-1121
Sussala (restored) 7 1121-1128
Jayasimha (Simhadeva) 22 1128
Jayasimha was still on the throne when Kalhana completed his
history in 1150 A. D.

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Omni-Man would only further establish his superiority to most Viltrumites throughout the series, sometimes taking on two or three at a time without relenting. For most of the series, he was firmly stronger and faster than Invincible, constantly providing a higher bar for the hero to reach.

How many pages are in the Walking Dead Compendium 4? ›

With over 1,000 pages, this volume contains the final chapter in Robert Kirkman (Super Dinosaur, Oblivion Song, Invincible) and Charlie Adlard's Eisner Award-winning story of survival horror upon which the hit AMC television series is based.

Is compendium 4 the last Walking Dead? ›

The Walking Dead: Compendium Four is the fourth and final compendium of Image Comics' The Walking Dead that includes issues 145-193, otherwise volumes 25-32.

Which is bigger omnibus or compendium? ›

Compendiums contain EIGHT volumes, which works out to four hardcovers, two omnibuses, or 48 individual issues. It's a fabulous way to binge the comics, but be warned because compendiums only come around every FOUR YEARS.

Are The Walking Dead comics still going? ›

The comic ends on a happy note as Carl tells the story of Rick Grimes to his daughter. He recounts how the world became safe once again. Creator Robert Kirkman wrote a lengthy letter to the fans explaining his decision to end the story.

How many pages are the invincible compendiums? ›

1024 pages

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